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- PublicationMétadonnées seulementStrain-specific antibodies reduce co-feeding transmission of the Lyme disease pathogen, Borrelia afzeliiVector-borne pathogens use a diversity of strategies to evade the vertebrate immune system. Co-feeding transmission is a potential immune evasion strategy because the vector-borne pathogen minimizes the time spent in the vertebrate host. We tested whether the Lyme disease pathogen, Borrelia afzelii, can use co-feeding transmission to escape the acquired immune response in the vertebrate host. We induced a strain-specific, protective antibody response by immunizing mice with one of two variants of OspC (A3 and A10), the highly variable outer surface protein C of Borrelia pathogens. Immunized mice were challenged via tick bite with B.afzelii strains A3 or A10 and infested with larval ticks at days 2 and 34 post-infection to measure co-feeding and systemic transmission respectively. Antibodies against a particular OspC variant significantly reduced co-feeding transmission of the targeted (homologous) strain but not the non-targeted (heterologous) strain. Cross-immunity between OspC antigens had no effect in co-feeding ticks but reduced the spirochaete load twofold in ticks infected via systemic transmission. In summary, OspC-specific antibodies reduced co-feeding transmission of a homologous but not a heterologous strain of B.afzelii. Co-feeding transmission allowed B.afzelii to evade the negative consequences of cross-immunity on the tick spirochaete load.
- PublicationMétadonnées seulementCross-reactive acquired immunity influences transmission success of the Lyme disease pathogen, Borrelia afzeliiCross-reactive acquired immunity in the vertebrate host induces indirect competition between strains of a given pathogen species and is critical for understanding the ecology of mixed infections. In vector-borne diseases, cross-reactive antibodies can reduce pathogen transmission at the vector-to-host and the host-to-vector lifecycle transition. The highly polymorphic, immunodominant, outer surface protein C (OspC) of the tick-borne spirochete bacterium Borrelia afzelii induces a strong antibody response in the vertebrate host. To test how cross-immunity in the vertebrate host influences tick-to-host and host-to-tick transmission, mice were immunized with one of two strain-specific recombinant OspC proteins (A3, A10), challenged via tick bite with one of the two B. afzelii ospC strains (A3, A10), and infested with xenodiagnostic ticks. Immunization with a given rOspC antigen protected mice against homologous strains carrying the same major ospC group allele but provided little or no cross-protection against heterologous strains carrying a different major ospC group allele. There were cross-immunity effects on the tick spirochete load but not on the probability of host-to-tick transmission. The spirochete load in ticks that had fed on mice with cross-immune experience was reduced by a factor of two compared to ticks that had fed on naive control mice. In addition, strain-specific differences in mouse spirochete load, host-to-tick transmission, tick spirochete load, and the OspC-specific IgG response revealed the mechanisms that determine variation in transmission success between strains of B. afzelii. This study shows that cross-immunity in infected vertebrate hosts can reduce pathogen load in the arthropod vector with potential consequences for vector-to-host pathogen transmission. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
- PublicationAccès libreCross-immunity and community structure of a multiple-strain pathogen in the tick vectorMany vector-borne pathogens consist of multiple strains that circulate in both the vertebrate host and the arthropod vector. Characterization of the community of pathogen strains in the arthropod vector is therefore important for understanding the epidemiology of mixed vector-borne infections. Borrelia afzelii and B. garinii are two species of tick-borne bacteria that cause Lyme disease in humans. These two sympatric pathogens use the same tick, Ixodes ricinus, but are adapted to different classes of vertebrate hosts. Both Borrelia species consist of multiple strains that are classified using the highly polymorphic ospC gene. Vertebrate cross-immunity against the OspC antigen is predicted to structure the community of multiple-strain Borrelia pathogens. Borrelia isolates were cultured from field-collected I. ricinus ticks over a period spanning 11 years. The Borrelia species of each isolate was identified using a reverse line blot (RLB) assay. Deep sequencing was used to characterize the ospC communities of 190 B. afzelii isolates and 193 B. garinii isolates. Infections with multiple ospC strains were common in ticks, but vertebrate cross-immunity did not influence the strain structure in the tick vector. The pattern of genetic variation at the ospC locus suggested that vertebrate cross-immunity exerts strong selection against intermediately divergent ospC alleles. Deep sequencing found that more than 50% of our isolates contained exotic ospC alleles derived from other Borrelia species. Two alternative explanations for these exotic ospC alleles are cryptic coinfections that were not detected by the RLB assay or horizontal transfer of the ospC gene between Borrelia species.
- PublicationMétadonnées seulementBorrelia burgdorferi genospecies detection by RLB hybridization in Ixodes cinus ticks from different sites of North-Eastern Poland
- PublicationMétadonnées seulementSeasonality of Ixodes ricinus ticks on vegetation and on rodents and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato genospecies diversity in two Lyme borreliosis endemic areas in Switzerland
- PublicationMétadonnées seulementPrevalence of three zoonotic Babesia species in Ixodes ricinus nymphs in a suburban forest in Switzerland
- PublicationMétadonnées seulementBorrelia afzelii ospC genotype diversity in Ixodes ricinus questing ticks and ticks from rodents in two Lyme borreliosis endemic areas: contribution of co-feeding ticks
- PublicationAccès libreProspective study on the incidence of infection by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato after a tick bite in a highly endemic area of Switzerland(2011-1-1)
;Hügli, D. ;Moret, J. ; ;Moosmann, Y. ;Erard, P.Malinverni, R.
- PublicationMétadonnées seulement
- PublicationAccès libreDeteccion molecular de patogenos emergentes de importancia medica y veterinaria en garrapatas capturadas sobre caballos domesticos