Voici les éléments 1 - 10 sur 36
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Wavelength tuning and thermal dynamics of continuous-wave mid-IR distributed feedback quantum cascade laser
    (2013-7-17) ;
    Cappelli, Francesco
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    ; ;
    Bartalini, Saverio
    ;
    We report on the wavelength tuning dynamics in continuous-wave distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers (QCLs). The wavelength tuning response for direct current modulation of two mid-IR QCLs from different suppliers was measured from 10 Hz up to several MHz using ro-vibrational molecular resonances as frequency-to-intensity converters. Unlike the output intensity, which can be modulated up to several gigahertz, the frequency-modulation bandwidth was found to be on the order of 200 kHz, limited by the laser thermal dynamics. A non-negligible roll-off and a significant phase shift are observed above a few hundred hertz already and explained by a thermal model.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Cross-influence between the two servo-loops of a fully-stabilized Er:fiber optical frequency comb
    We present a study of the impact of the cross-coupling between the two servo loops used to stabilize the repetition rate frep and the carrier-envelope offset (CEO) frequency fCEO in a commercial Er:fiber frequency comb, based on the combination of experimental measurements and a model of the coupled loops. The developed theoretical model enables us to quantify the influence of the servo-loop coupling on an optical comb line, by simulating the hypothetic case where no coupling would be present. Numerical values for the model were obtained from an extensive characterization of the comb, in terms of frequency noise and dynamic response to a modulation applied to each actuator, for both frep and fCEO. To validate the model, the frequency noise of an optical comb line at 1.56 μm was experimentally measured from the heterodyne beat between the comb and a cavity-stabilized ultranarrow-linewidth laser and showed good agreement with the calculated noise spectrum. The coupling between the two stabilization loops results in a more than 10-fold reduction of the comb mode frequency noise power spectral density in a wide Fourier frequency range.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    New-generation cryogenic sapphire microwave oscillators for space, metrology and scientific applications
    (2012-8-28)
    Giordano, Vincent
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    Grop, Serge
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    Dubois, Benoît
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    Bourgeois, Pierre-Yves
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    Kersalé, Yann
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    Haye, Grégory
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    ; ; ; ;
    Chauvin, Jacques
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    Valat, Davis
    ;
    Rubiola, Enrico
    This article reports on the characterization of cryogenic sapphireoscillators (CSOs), and on the first test of a CSO in a real field installation, where ultimate frequency stability and continuous operation are critical issues, with no survey. Thanks to low-vibration liquid-He cryocooler design, Internet monitoring, and a significant effort of engineering, these oscillators could bridge the gap from an experiment to a fully reliable machine. The cryocooler needs scheduled maintenance every 2 years, which is usual for these devices. The direct comparison of two CSOs demonstrates a frequency stability of 5 × 10E−16 for 30 s < τ < 300 s integration time, and 4.5 × 10E−15 at 1 day (1 × 10E−14 typical). Two prototypes are fully operational, codenamed ELISA and ULISS. ELISA has been permanently installed the new deep space antenna station of the European Space Agency in Malargüe, Argentina, in May 2012. ULISS is a transportable version of ELISA, modified to fit in a small van (8.5 m2 footprint). Installation requires a few hours manpower and 1 day of operation to attain full stability. ULISS, intended for off-site experiments and as a technology demonstrator, and has successfully completed two long-distance travels.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Experimental Validation of a Simple Approximation to Determine the Linewidth of a Laser from its Frequency Noise Spectrum
    Laser frequency fluctuations can be characterized either comprehensively by the frequency noise spectrum or in a simple but incomplete manner by the laser linewidth. A formal relation exists to calculate the linewidth from the frequency noise spectrum, but it is laborious to apply in practice. We recently proposed a much simpler geometrical approximation applicable to any arbitrary frequency noise spectrum. Here we present an experimental validation of this approximation using laser sources of different spectral characteristics. For each of them, we measured both the frequency noise spectrum to calculate the approximate linewidth and the actual linewidth directly. We observe a very good agreement between the approximate and directly measured linewidths over a broad range of values (from kilohertz to megahertz) and for significantly different laser line shapes.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Noise properties of an optical frequency comb from a SESAM-modelocked 1.5 µm solid-state laser stabilized to the 10E-13 level
    We present a detailed investigation of the noise properties of an optical frequency comb generated from a femtosecond diode-pumped solid-state laser operating in the 1.5-μm spectral region. The stabilization of the passively mode-locked Er:Yb:glass laser oscillator, referred to as ERGO, is achieved using pump power modulation for the control of the carrier envelope offset (CEO) frequency and by adjusting the laser cavity length for the control of the repetition rate. The stability and the noise of the ERGO comb are characterized in free-running and in phase-locked operation by measuring the noise properties of the CEO, of the repetition rate, and of a comb line at 1558 nm. The comb line is analyzed from the heterodyne beat signal with a cavity-stabilized ultra-narrow-linewidth laser using a frequency discriminator. Two different schemes to stabilize the comb to a radio-frequency (RF) reference are compared. The comb properties (phase noise, frequency stability) are limited in both cases by the RF oscillator used to stabilize the repetition rate, while the contribution of the CEO is negligible at all Fourier frequencies, as a consequence of the low-noise characteristics of the CEO-beat. A linewidth of ≈150 kHz and a fractional frequency instability of 4.2×1E−13 at 1 s are obtained for an optical comb line at 1558 nm. Improved performance is obtained by stabilizing the comb to an optical reference, which is a cavity-stabilized ultra-narrow linewidth laser at 1558 nm. The fractional frequency stability of 8×1E−14 at 1 s, measured in preliminary experiments, is limited by the reference oscillator used in the frequency comparison.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Linewidth of a quantum cascade laser assessed from its frequency noise spectrum and impact of the current driver
    We report on the measurement of the frequency noise properties of a 4.6-μm distributed-feedback quantum-cascade laser (QCL) operating in continuous wave near room temperature using a spectroscopic set-up. The flank of the R(14) ro-vibrational absorption line of carbon monoxide at 2196.6 cm^−1 is used to convert the frequency fluctuations of the laser into intensity fluctuations that are spectrally analyzed. We evaluate the influence of the laser driver on the observed QCL frequency noise and show how only a low-noise driver with a current noise density below ≈1 nA/√Hz allows observing the frequency noise of the laser itself, without any degradation induced by the current source. We also show how the laser FWHM linewidth, extracted from the frequency noise spectrum using a simple formula, can be drastically broadened at a rate of ≈1.6 MHz/(nA/√Hz) for higher current noise densities of the driver. The current noise of commercial QCL drivers can reach several nA/√Hz , leading to a broadening of the linewidth of our QCL of up to several megahertz. To remedy this limitation, we present a low-noise QCL driver with only 350 pA/√Hz current noise, which is suitable to observe the ≈550 kHz linewidth of our QCL.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Experimental validation of a simple approximation to determine the linewidth of a laser from its frequency noise spectrum
    Laser frequency fluctuations can be characterized either comprehensively by the frequency noise spectrum or in a simple but incomplete manner by the laser linewidth. A formal relation exists to calculate the linewidth from the frequency noise spectrum, but it is laborious to apply in practice. We recently proposed a much simpler geometrical approximation applicable to any arbitrary frequency noise spectrum. Here we present an experimental validation of this approximation using laser sources of different spectral characteristics. For each of them, we measured both the frequency noise spectrum to calculate the approximate linewidth and the actual linewidth directly. We observe a very good agreement between the approximate and directly measured linewidths over a broad range of values (from kilohertz to megahertz) and for significantly different laser line shapes.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Theoretical analysis of aliasing noises in cold atom Mach-Zehnder interferometers
    We present a theoretical analysis of aliasing noises that might appear in cold atom Mach-Zehnder interferometers used for the measurement of various physical quantities. We focus more specifically on single cold atom gyroscopes. To evaluate the level of aliasing noises, we have developed a model based on the power spectral densities of the different identified noise sources as input parameters and which makes use of a servo-loop to realize a precise measurement of the rotation rate. The model allows one to take into account different modes of operation, like a continuous as well as a pulsed or even a multi-ball operation. For monokinetic atoms, we show that the intermodulation noise can be completely filtered out with a continuous mode of operation and an optimum modulation scheme for any modulation frequency but also with a pulsed operation however only for specific launching frequencies. In the case of a real continuous atomic beam having a velocity distribution, it comes out that a high attenuation can be reached which indicates clearly the potential stability improvement that can be expected from a continuous operation.