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- PublicationMétadonnées seulement
- PublicationMétadonnées seulementConsidering the various data sources, survey types and indicators: To what extent do conclusions regarding changing income inequality in Switzerland since the early 1990s converge?We compared time series of eight different data sources (HBS, SLFS, SESS, SHP, SILC, SHS, SPS, tax data) and calculated various inequality measures (Gini coefficient, Atkinson coefficient, Theil’s T, MLD, SCV, p90/p10, p80/p20, p50/p10, p90/p50) for the period from 1990 to 2012. While the level of inequality varies strongly across surveys, the results concerning the evolution over time are rather coherent. For disposable household income, inequality has remained stable, but evolves parallel to the business cycle of the Swiss economy. For individual employment income, findings across datasets are less consistent.
- PublicationAccès libreBetween Social Structure Inertia and Changing Biographies: Trajectories of Material Deprivation in SwitzerlandIn contemporary societies, attaining a decent standard of living which allows people to lead a socially integrated life is a key issue for human rights and social policy. In a context in which social structures are more porous yet still quite powerful, the risk of poverty is influenced both by the inertia of these structural determinants and by uncertain life events. This contribution analyzes trajectories of material deprivation in Switzerland from 1999 to 2013 using data from the Swiss Household Panel. We describe the trajectories the households experienced and test the impact of various determinants of these trajectories. We challenge the robustness of previous results by developing innovative measures of the determinants by gathering information at the household level and by taking into account changes in the situation of the households over time. Our findings suggest that some of the claims that have been made regarding the individualization of social inequalities and the decline of social class are not confirmed empirically, and that the classical determinants of social inequalities remain powerful predictors. Sure enough, critical life events can have an impact; however, the scale of this impact is nowhere near as great as the effect of ‘classical’ poverty factors.
- PublicationMétadonnées seulement"How Transnational are Migrants in Switzerland? An Analysis of the Migration-Mobility-Transnationality Nexus"Transnational studies have been in vogue for the past two decades. Nevertheless, there remain important knowledge gaps concerning migrants’ transnational formations. First, most of the literature relies on qualitative case studies. The few existing quantitative studies have shown that transnationality is far from being a “lifestyle” and that factors other than individual preferences are at play. Second, most studies in this field focus on one nationally defined group, which renders impossible the elaboration of an overall model of transnationality that goes beyond description. Third, few studies have tried to link the question of transnationality simultaneously to migration and mobility. To address these gaps, we propose here an analysis of migrant transnationality based on the Migration-Mobility Survey. We define transnationality along three dimensions. We make a distinction between transnational (pre-and-post-migration) mobilities, network transnationality and transnational belonging. We use regression models and multiple correspondence analysis to identify the prevalence of transnationality and the main determinants of transnational patterns. The analysis confirms the hypothesis that transnationality can be linear – an “automatic effect” of migration – resource-dependent, but also reactive upon discrimination. Migrant transnationality can simultaneously be a sign of possessing high resources – most importantly, in terms of legal capital, education and economic resources – or of discrimination. Furthermore, our analysis brings to light five ideal-typical configurations of what we call the Migration-Mobility-Transnationality Nexus. Our analysis contributes to this book by investigating the Migration-Mobility-Nexus with respect to transnationality, going beyond the normative ideas of migration and mobility by integrating them analytically into one model.
- PublicationAccès libreWorking Poverty Among Immigrants and « Ethnic Minorities » : Theoretical Framework and Empirical Evidence Across Welfare Regimes(2011)While the research that focuses on working poverty and low-wage employment usually explains the situation of immigrants and 'ethnic' minorities in terms of human capital, linguistic skills, social origin, and the like ('class-only' explanations), the literature that starts from the specific situation of minorities, especially the one that deals with immigration laws and/or labour market discrimination, tends to ignore what their situation has in common with that of disadvantaged 'native whites' in post-industrial economies. This paper attempts to build a theoretical bridge between these two strands of literature, and provides, in a first step, evidence as to the incidence of working poverty among immigrants (and 'ethnic' minorities when the information is available) across welfare regimes. In a second step, the impact of the citizenship status, the country of birth (and of 'race' in the US) is assessed, when the main working poverty factors and the main forms of labour market discrimination are controlled for. Interestingly, these variables have a significant impact in these models; hence, further factors must be at play, and some hypotheses are discussed, especially the role of 'ethnic economies'.