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The contribution of discursive and cognitive factors in referential choices made by elderly people during a narrative task

2023-1-5, Sandoz, Mélanie, Iglesias, Katia, Achim, Amélie, Fossard, Marion

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Bonobos engage in joint commitment

2020-12-18, Heesen, Raphaela, Bangerter, Adrian, Zuberbühler, Klaus, Rossano, Federico, Iglesias, Katia, Guéry, Jean-Pascal, Genty, Emilie

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Métadonnées seulement

Explaining the Decline in Subjective Well-Being Over Time in Panel Data

2017, Iglesias, Katia, Gazareth, Pascale, Suter, Christian

This volume analyses the quantification of the effect of factors measuring subjective well-being, and in particular on the metrics applied. With happiness studies flourishing over the last decades, both in number of publications as well as in their exposure, researchers working in this field are aware of potential weaknesses and pitfalls of these metrics. Contributors to this volume reflect on different factors influencing quantification, such as scale size, wording, language, biases, and cultural comparability in order to raise awareness on the tools and on their conditions of use. In the contribution, we examine to what extent the decline in SWB in longitudinal data is a robust result showing an actual decrease or reflect some specific methodological artefacts of these data. We identified more precisely four possible methodological issues: non-random attrition (NRA), panel conditioning (PC), sample refreshment and aging of participants. We discuss the effect of these methodological issues on the measured evolution of SWB, that shows a different trend once these issues are neutralized.

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Le bien-être subjectif en Suisse au début du 21e siècle : évolution et déterminants

2015, Iglesias, Katia, Simona Moussa, Jehane, Suter, Christian

Le bien-être subjectif, hautement lié à la notion de qualité de vie, est une thématique qui se retrouve souvent au cœur des préoccupations politiques et les recherches sur le sujet se sont multipliées rapidement depuis les années 1980. L’étude de l’évolution du bien-être subjectif apparaît alors d’autant plus importante qu’elle est à même d’apporter des informations intéressantes sur l’état de notre société.
Cette note a deux objectifs principaux. Premièrement, il s’agit de proposer des indicateurs du bien-être subjectif individuel et sociétal qui puissent être mesurés en Suisse dans le temps et, dans le même temps, contribuer au débat sur les qualités psychométriques de ces indicateurs. Pour ce faire, nous avons examiné les problèmes méthodologiques liés aux mesures de satisfaction avec la vie, soit leur qualité intrinsèquement subjective, le nombre de variables nécessaires, la nature de ces variables – mesures globales ou par domaines de vie – et enfin les problèmes liés aux phénomènes d’adaptation. Les données du Panel Suisse de Ménages nous ont permis de créer différents indicateurs du bien-être subjectif. Les analyses menées à partir des données 2005 soutiennent le fait que le bien-être subjectif compte deux dimensions – individuelle et sociétale – et qu’il s’agit de construits liés mais bien distincts. Nous avons pu mesurer l’évolution dans le temps du bien-être subjectif individuel, mais cela n’a pas pu être fait pour le bien-être subjectif sociétal, les données nécessaires n’étant pas disponibles pour chaque année.
Deuxièmement, il s’agit d’étudier, en 2000 et en 2012, les déterminants du bien-être subjectif en Suisse, soit les variables susceptibles de l'influencer. Pour ce faire, nous avons utilisé les indicateurs du bien-être subjectif individuel construits dans la première partie de cette note. De manière générale, quelle que soit l'opérationnalisation du bien-être subjectif individuel et quelle que soit l’année considérée, les deux grandes catégories de variables explicatives sont les déterminants liés à la santé (c.-à-d. état de santé, limitation d’activité pour raison de santé, changement de l’état de santé et problèmes psychosomatiques) et les déterminants liés à la situation financière (c.-à-d. standard de vie et précarité financière).

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Evidence of joint commitment in great apes' natural joint actions.

2021-12-01T00:00:00Z, Heesen, Raphaela, Zuberbühler, Klaus, Bangerter, Adrian, Iglesias, Katia, Rossano, Federico, Pajot, Aude, Guéry, Jean-Pascal, Genty, Emilie

Human joint action seems special, as it is grounded in joint commitment-a sense of mutual obligation participants feel towards each other. Comparative research with humans and non-human great apes has typically investigated joint commitment by experimentally interrupting joint actions to study subjects' resumption strategies. However, such experimental interruptions are human-induced, and thus the question remains of how great apes naturally handle interruptions. Here, we focus on naturally occurring interruptions of joint actions, grooming and play, in bonobos and chimpanzees. Similar to humans, both species frequently resumed interrupted joint actions (and the previous behaviours, like grooming the same body part region or playing the same play type) with their previous partners and at the previous location. Yet, the probability of resumption attempts was unaffected by social bonds or rank. Our data suggest that great apes experience something akin to joint commitment, for which we discuss possible evolutionary origins.

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Referential adjustment during discourse production in Alzheimer's disease

2020-8-11, Sandoz, Mélanie, Iglesias, Katia, Achim, Amélie, Démonet, Jean-François, Fossard, Marion

Several studies have shown that people with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) tend to use more pronouns than healthy aged adults when referring to entities during discourse. This referential behavior has been associated with the decrease of cognitive abilities, such as lexical retrieval difficulties or reduced abilities in working memory. However, the influence of certain important discourse factors on the referential choices made by people with AD has yet to be established. This study examines referential choices made at three discourse stages during narrative discourse (the introduction of a referent, the maintaining of the referent in focus, and the shift from one referent in focus to another). These referential choices are examined in increasingly complex referential contexts. In addition, this study investigates the relationships between referential choices and various cognitive abilities. To do so, the narrative discourses of 21 people with AD and 21 healthy adults were elicited using a newly developed storytelling in sequence task. The analyses focused on the production of three major referential expressions (indefinite expressions, definite expressions and pronouns) which are expected to vary according to discourse stage and the referential complexity of the stories. The results show that AD participants produce significantly fewer of the referential expressions expected at the introduction and shift stages than healthy aged adults produce. Nevertheless, the variation in the categories of referential expressions produced by the AD participants between the discourse stages is similar to that produced by the healthy aged adults, suggesting a preserved sensitivity to the factors manipulated in the task (i.e., discourse stages and referential complexity). This study also highlights the fact that different cognitive competences, especially executive abilities, are greatly involved in referential choices. The results add further evidence that referential choices rely on a variety of cognitive skills, depending on the discourse context in which they are made.

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Trajectories of drug use among French young people: Prototypical stages of involvement in illicit drug use

2016, Baggio, Stéphanie, Spilka, Stanislas, Studer, Joseph, Iglesias, Katia, Gmel, Gerhard

Aims: This study investigated patterns and trajectories of substance use, with a special focus on illicit drugs other than cannabis. It examined both patterns and trajectories of use among a general population-based sample. Methods: We used data from the 2011 French ESCAPAD survey of French 17-year-olds to assess exposure and age of initiation of 14 licit and illicit drugs (N=23,882). Latent class analysis (LCA) and survival analyses were performed. Results: The results of the LCA showed that patterns of illicit drug use clearly distinguished between two groups of other illicit drugs: 1) amphetamines/speed, cocaine, ecstasy/MDMA, magic mushrooms, poppers, and solvents; 2) crack/freebase, GHB/GBL, heroine, LSD, and ketamine. Survival analyses highlighted that trajectories involved the first group before the second one. Conclusions: Prototypical drug use patterns and trajectories should include a distinction between two groups of illicit drugs. Preventive actions should focus on young people in their early teens, since very young users are more likely to progress to illicit drug use, and further studies should include this distinction instead of aggregating other illicit drugs into a single category.

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Assessing joint commitment as a process in great apes.

2021-08-20T00:00:00Z, Heesen, Raphaela, Bangerter, Adrian, Zuberbühler, Klaus, Iglesias, Katia, Neumann, Christof, Pajot, Aude, Perrenoud, Laura, Guéry, Jean-Pascal, Rossano, Federico, Genty, Emilie

Many social animals interact jointly, but only humans experience a specific sense of obligation toward their co-participants, a . However, joint commitment is not only a mental state but also a that reveals itself in the coordination efforts deployed during entry and exit phases of joint action. Here, we investigated the presence and duration of such phases in  = 1,242 natural play and grooming interactions of captive chimpanzees and bonobos. The apes frequently exchanged mutual gaze and communicative signals prior to and after engaging in joint activities with conspecifics, demonstrating entry and exit phases comparable to those of human joint activities. Although rank effects were less clear, phases in bonobos were more moderated by friendship compared to phases in chimpanzees, suggesting bonobos were more likely to reflect patterns analogous to human "face management". This suggests that joint commitment as process was already present in our last common ancestor with .

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Between Social Structure Inertia and Changing Biographies: Trajectories of Material Deprivation in Switzerland

2018, Gazareth, Pascale, Iglesias, Katia, Crettaz, Eric, Suter, Christian

In contemporary societies, attaining a decent standard of living which allows people to lead a socially integrated life is a key issue for human rights and social policy. In a context in which social structures are more porous yet still quite powerful, the risk of poverty is influenced both by the inertia of these structural determinants and by uncertain life events. This contribution analyzes trajectories of material deprivation in Switzerland from 1999 to 2013 using data from the Swiss Household Panel. We describe the trajectories the households experienced and test the impact of various determinants of these trajectories. We challenge the robustness of previous results by developing innovative measures of the determinants by gathering information at the household level and by taking into account changes in the situation of the households over time. Our findings suggest that some of the claims that have been made regarding the individualization of social inequalities and the decline of social class are not confirmed empirically, and that the classical determinants of social inequalities remain powerful predictors. Sure enough, critical life events can have an impact; however, the scale of this impact is nowhere near as great as the effect of ‘classical’ poverty factors.

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Feasibility, Acceptability, and Preliminary Effects of Educational Intervention to Strengthen Humanistic Practice Among Hemodialysis Nurses in the Canton of Vaud, Switzerland: A Pilot Study

2016, Delmas, Philippe, O’Reilly, Louise, Iglesias, Katia, Cara, Chantal, Burnier, Michel

A mixed-design pilot study was undertaken to examine the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary effects of an educational intervention based on the theory of human caring delivered to hemodialysis (HD) nurses in Switzerland. Participants were 9 nurses and 22 patients undergoing HD. Results showed that the proposed intervention had a high level of feasibility and acceptability. Following the intervention, participating nurses consolidated their caring attitudes/behaviours toward patients undergoing HD. The patients, for their part, perceived significant changes in the nurses' caring attitudes/behaviours following the intervention. Further research is needed to examine its effects on a larger population of nurses and patients.