Voici les éléments 1 - 10 sur 28
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Simulating Small-Scale Rainfall Fields Conditioned by Weather State and Elevation: A Data-Driven Approach Based on Rainfall Radar Images
    (2017)
    Oriani, F
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    Ohana-Levi, N
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    Marra, F
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    Straubhaar, J
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    ; ;
    Karnieli, A
    ;
    Morin, E
    The quantification of spatial rainfall is critical for distributed hydrological modeling. Rainfall spatial patterns generated by similar weather conditions can be extremely diverse. This variability can have a significant impact on hydrological processes. Stochastic simulation allows generating multiple realizations of spatial rainfall or filling missing data. The simulated data can then be used as input for numerical models to study the uncertainty on hydrological forecasts. In this paper, we use the direct sampling technique to generate stochastic simulations of high-resolution (1 km) daily rainfall fields, conditioned by elevation and weather state. The technique associates historical radar estimates to variables describing the daily weather conditions, such as the rainfall type and mean intensity, and selects radar images accordingly to form a conditional training image set of each day. Rainfall fields are then generated by resampling pixels from these images. The simulation at each location is conditioned by neighbor patterns of rainfall amount and elevation. The technique is tested on the simulation of daily rainfall amount for the eastern Mediterranean. The results show that it can generate realistic rainfall fields for different weather types, preserving the temporal weather pattern, the spatial features, and the complex relation with elevation. The concept of conditional training image provides added value to multiple-point simulation techniques dealing with extremely nonstationary heterogeneities and extensive data sets.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Missing data simulation inside flow rate time-series using multiple-point statistics
    The direct sampling (DS) multiple-point statistical technique is proposed as a non-parametric missing data simulator for hydrological flow rate time-series. The algorithm makes use of the patterns contained inside a training data set to reproduce the complexity of the missing data. The proposed setup is tested in the reconstruction of a flow rate time-series while considering several missing data scenarios, as well as a comparative test against a time-series model of type ARMAX. The results show that DS generates more realistic simulations than ARMAX, better recovering the statistical content of the missing data. The predictive power of both techniques is much increased when a correlated flow rate time-series is used, but DS can also use incomplete auxiliary time-series, with a comparable prediction power. This makes the technique a handy simulation tool for practitioners dealing with incomplete data sets.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Conditioning multiple-point statistics simulations to block data
    Multiple-points statistics (MPS) allows to generate random fields reproducing spatial statistics derived from a training image. MPS methods consist in borrowing patterns from the training set. Therefore, the simulation domain is assumed to be at the same resolution as the conceptual model, although geometrical deformations can be handled by such techniques. Whereas punctual conditioning data corresponding to the scale of the grid node can be easily integrated, accounting for data available at larger scales is challenging. In this paper, we propose an extension of MPS able to deal with block data, i.e. target mean values over subsets of the simulation domain. Our extension is based on the direct sampling algorithm and consists to add a criterion for the acceptance of the candidate node scanned in the training image to constrain the simulation to block data. Likelihood ratios are used to compare the averages of the simulated variable taken on the informed nodes in the blocks and the target mean values. Moreover, the block data may overlap and their support can be of any shape and size. Illustrative examples show the potential of the presented algorithm for practical applications.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Conditioning multiple-point statistics simulations to block data
    Multiple-points statistics (MPS) allows to generate random fields reproducing spatial statistics derived from a training image. MPS methods consist in borrowing patterns from the training set. Therefore, the simulation domain is assumed to be at the same resolution as the conceptual model, although geometrical deformations can be handled by such techniques. Whereas punctual conditioning data corresponding to the scale of the grid node can be easily integrated, accounting for data available at larger scales is challenging. In this paper, we propose an extension of MPS able to deal with block data, i.e. target mean values over subsets of the simulation domain. Our extension is based on the direct sampling algorithm and consists to add a criterion for the acceptance of the candidate node scanned in the training image to constrain the simulation to block data. Likelihood ratios are used to compare the averages of the simulated variable taken on the informed nodes in the blocks and the target mean values. Moreover, the block data may overlap and their support can be of any shape and size. Illustrative examples show the potential of the presented algorithm for practical applications.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Constraining distance-based multipoint simulations to proportions and trends
    (2015-10) ; ; ;
    Chugunova, Tatiana
    ;
    Biver, Pierre
    In the last years, the use of training images to represent spatial variability has emerged as a viable concept. Among the possible algorithms dealing with training images, those using distances between patterns have been successful for applications to subsurface modeling and earth surface observation. However, one limitation of these algorithms is that they do not provide a precise control on the local proportion of each category in the output simulations. We present a distance perturbation strategy that addresses this issue. During the simulation, the distance to a candidate value is penalized if it does not result in proportions that tend to a target given by the user. The method is illustrated on applications to remote sensing and pore-scale modeling. These examples show that the approach offers increased user control on the simulation by allowing to easily impose trends or proportions that differ from the proportions in the training image.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Analog-based meandering channel simulation
    (2014-1-10) ;
    Comunian, Alessandro
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    Irarrazaval, Inigo
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  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Bridges between multiple-point geostatistics and texture synthesis: Review and guidelines for future research
    (2014) ;
    Lefebvre, S
    Multiple-Point Simulations (MPS) is a family of geostatistical tools that has received a lot of attention in recent years for the characterization of spatial phenomena in geosciences. It relies on the definition of training images to represent a given type of spatial variability, or texture. We show that the algorithmic tools used are similar in many ways to techniques developed in computer graphics, where there is a need to generate large amounts of realistic textures for applications such as video games and animated movies. Similarly to MPS, these texture synthesis methods use training images, or exemplars, to generate realistic-looking graphical textures.
    Both domains of multiple-point geostatistics and example-based texture synthesis present similarities in their historic development and share similar concepts. These disciplines have however remained separated, and as a result significant algorithmic innovations in each discipline have not been universally adopted. Texture synthesis algorithms present drastically increased computational efficiency, patterns reproduction and user control. At the same time, MPS developed ways to condition models to spatial data and to produce 3D stochastic realizations, which have not been thoroughly investigated in the field of texture synthesis.
    In this paper we review the possible links between these disciplines and show the potential and limitations of using concepts and approaches from texture synthesis in MPS. We also provide guidelines on how recent developments could benefit both fields of research, and what challenges remain open.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Simulation of rainfall time series from different climatic regions using the direct sampling technique
    The direct sampling technique, belonging to the family of multiple-point statistics, is proposed as a nonparametric alternative to the classical autoregressive and Markov-chain-based models for daily rainfall time-series simulation. The algorithm makes use of the patterns contained inside the training image (the past rainfall record) to reproduce the complexity of the signal without inferring its prior statistical model: the time series is simulated by sampling the training data set where a sufficiently similar neighborhood exists. The advantage of this approach is the capability of simulating complex statistical relations by respecting the similarity of the patterns at different scales. The technique is applied to daily rainfall records from different climate settings, using a standard setup and without performing any optimization of the parameters. The results show that the overall statistics as well as the dry/wet spells patterns are simulated accurately. Also the extremes at the higher temporal scale are reproduced adequately, reducing the well known problem of overdispersion.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    A practical guide to performing multiple-point statistical simulations with the Direct Sampling algorithm
    (2013-3)
    Meerschman, Eef
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    ; ; ;
    Van Meirvenne, Marc
    ;
    The Direct Sampling (DS) algorithm is a recently developed multiple-point statistical simulation technique. It directly scans the training image (TI) for a given data event instead of storing the training probability values in a catalogue prior to simulation. By using distances between the given data events and the TI patterns, DS allows to simulate categorical, continuous and multivariate problems. Benefiting from the wide spectrum of potential applications of DS, requires understanding of the user-defined input parameters. Therefore, we list the most important parameters and assess their impact on the generated simulations. Real case TIs are used, including an image of ice-wedge polygons, a marble slice and snow crystals, all three as continuous and categorical images. We also use a 3D categorical TI representing a block of concrete to demonstrate the capacity of DS to generate 3D simulations. First, a quantitative sensitivity analysis is conducted on the three parameters balancing simulation quality and CPU time: the acceptance threshold t, the fraction of TI to scan f and the number of neighbors n. Next to a visual inspection of the generated simulations, the performance is analyzed in terms of speed of calculation and quality of pattern reproduction. Whereas decreasing the CPU time by influencing t and n is at the expense of simulation quality, reducing the scanned fraction of the TI allows substantial computational gains without degrading the quality as long as the TI contains enough reproducible patterns. We also illustrate the quality improvement resulting from post-processing and the potential of DS to simulate bivariate problems and to honor conditioning data. We report a comprehensive guide to performing multiple-point statistical simulations with the DS algorithm and provide recommendations on how to set the input parameters appropriately.