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- PublicationAccès libreProducing transformations to study them: Concept Development in Activity ClinicsConcepts are at the core of human psychological experience. By means of them, we can communicate, understand and collaborate with each other. Within each community, concepts have been learned and can be taught. They are of capital importance for education in every level and for work activities. Concepts have been the object of study of different disciplines and in different contexts for many years. Despite their importance and the attention they have received, both common sense and psychological science understand concepts in an oversimplified way that has consequences for research and teaching. Early in the past century, Vygotsky studied the phenomena of concepts and their development in what ended up addressing most of the loose ends that remain in current dominant psychological and educational perspectives. In this article, we review the main, hegemonic perspectives on concepts in psychology, particularly one of the mayor research fields in educational psychology (Research on Conceptual Change), to present later some cross-cutting criticisms to those approaches that will become our touchstone for a sound theory of concepts. Then we present the Vygotskian approach to concept development, and the methodological implications derived from the dialectical framework in which it is inscribed. Finally, extending the Vygotskian approach beyond child development, we present a method developed in French work psychology, the Activity Clinics approach, and its potential for studying the development of concepts in work activities.
- PublicationAccès libreReading comprehension strategies used by Chilean deaf adults. A think-aloud study(2023)
;María Rosa Lissi ;Maribel González ;Verónica Escobar ; ;Camila VillavicencioChristian SebastiánThis qualitative study aimed to identify and analyse reading comprehension strategies used by five deaf adults, 22–47 years old,who were close to complete or had lready completed their studies at a higher education institution. The method chosen was a partial replication of the one used by Banner and Wang (2011) in their think-aloud study to describe cognitive and metacognitive reading comprehension strategies use among deaf students and adults. The present study included similar interview questions and think-aloud procedures, which were conducted by a deaf teacher, native user of Chilean Sign Language (LSCh). Participants read informational texts and were interrupted three times during the reading task to answer questions about their cognitive and metacognitive processes. Results showed that these deaf adults can use strategies from all he categories identified by Pressley and Afflerbach (1995) : constructing meaning, monitoring and improving comprehension, and evaluating comprehension. Some strategies described in the study from Banner and Wang were observed only in individual cases, and some of them were not used at all. The deaf participants of this study also used some strategies that were not included in some previous studies. Since very few deaf adults in Chile have completed higher education, the information provided by this study could be useful in guiding interventions aimed to improve reading comprehension in elementary, highschool, and college DHH students. The relevance of early experiences with reading, and motivational factors associated to reading achievement are discussed.
- PublicationAccès libreConcept development in microengineering: unpacking underlying processes and developmental paths.(Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya., 2022-11-30)Concepts are a matter of importance for engineering education. Believed to be critical for developing expertise and engineering competence, conceptual knowledge has become a focus for research and training. Despite focusing on it, engineering graduates still often do not understand core concepts for their practice. With a few exceptions, most research concerning conceptual knowledge in engineering has been developed on assumptions of cognitive psychology, which have been subject to strong criticisms. One of these criticisms points out that mainstream approaches on concepts do not account for the socio-material conditions in which concepts are used and transformed. Some researchers in engineering education have moved beyond, taking a situative perspective. These studies have shown how, compared to training, knowledge in the practice is highly contextualized, depends on tools in which it is inscribed, and is distributed among collaborators. However, while stressing the sociomaterial dimension of conceptual knowledge and the differences in concept use between training and practice, the situative perspective does not account for the way in which conceptual knowledge develops. Alternatively, the cultural-historical theory of concepts offers an approach that overcomes the weaknesses of mainstream approaches while addressing the problem of development. Drawing on culturalhistorical theory, this paper presents an ongoing research aimed at the study of concept development in microengineering teaching and practice. I will present the respective methodological approach—borrowed from a French tradition of work psychology—for studying concept development from interactions in work and teaching activities. Expected results and implications for engineering education will also be discussed.
- PublicationMétadonnées seulementThe Vygotskian Contribution to the Construction of a General Theory of Human Learning(Cham, Switzerland: Springer, 2021)
;Sebastián, Christian ;Lissi, María RosaDuring the 1990s, trying to account for the complexity of the learning process of adult learners, Étienne Bourgeois and Jean Nizet realized that the conceptual frameworks available to explain such a process widely rest on an epistemology that establishes a priori essential differences between child and adult learners. As a response, they committed in developing a general approach to human learning that were coherently inscribed in a general theory of human functioning and development. Appropriating the conceptual system of Piagetian constructivism, they developed a solid and fruitful account of human learning. This account, however, is not free of problems and poses new challenges. In this chapter, we briefly present two of those challenges (the supposed distinction of declarative and procedural knowledge, and the problem of authentic cognitive novelty) and propose Lev Vygotski’s work to overcome them. We focus particularly on the Vygotskian conceptions of concept and internalization, and we illustrate these conceptual contributions with examples of our work in teaching and research in both deaf education and teacher training. The chapter finally presents the integrated Vygotskian-Piagetian model we have adopted in our ongoing effort to account for human learning, which we hope will be useful for researchers and educators.
- PublicationAccès libreLa exclusión de la comunidad sorda del sistema de atención en salud mental. Hacia un modelo que respete sus características culturales y lingüísticas(Santiago de Chile: Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, 2021)
;Lissi, María Rosa ;Bacigalupo, Félix ;González, Maribel ;Escobar, Verónica ; ;Varas, ElisaBonilla, YexeniaLas personas sordas han estado históricamente marginadas del acceso a las oportunidades de promoción, prevención, atención e intervención en salud mental que se ofrecen al resto de la población, pese a que estudios realizados en países más desarrollados indican que estas presentan una mayor prevalencia de problemas de este tipo en comparación a los oyentes. Existe una falta de reconocimiento de las características lingüísticas y culturales de la comunidad sorda, y esta realidad a nivel global se ve agravada por la falta de políticas públicas concretas sobre el tema en nuestro país. A través de la realización de entrevistas, se levantó información sobre esta problemática con el objetivo de proponer sugerencias que contribuyan a generar condiciones más justas para la población sorda en cuanto a sus posibilidades de acceder a una atención en salud mental que respete sus características. Considerando que uno de los problemas es la ausencia de instrumentos que se adecuen a las necesidades de este grupo se planteó también el objetivo de traducir a LSCh y adaptar el Patient Health Questionnaire PHQ-9 (Kroenke et al., 2001), un instrumento para evaluar síntomas depresivos, como un primer paso en el desarrollo de instrumentos de evaluación que se adecuen a la comunidad sorda.
- PublicationMétadonnées seulementTECLAS: A Reading Comprehension Intervention for Chilean Deaf Adolescents(Washington D. C., United States: Gallaudet University Press, 2020)
;Lissi, María Rosa ;Sebastián, Christian ; ;Iturriaga, Cristián ;Henríquez, CatalinaHofmann, Sergio
- PublicationAccès libre¿Cómo encontraré trabajo? Proyecciones imaginadas de transición desde la universidad al mundo laboral de estudiantes de pregrado(2019-11)
;Gallardo, GonzaloEste estudio cualitativo y exploratorio describe proyecciones de transición imaginadas desde la universidad al mundo del trabajo de estudiantes de pregrado en sus últimos años de formación. Basado en el análisis de entrevistas a 19 estudiantes de cuatro carreras de la Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, se presentan preocupaciones, dificultades, facilitadores y estrategias proyectadas en función del futuro ingreso al mundo laboral. Entre los principales hallazgos se destaca que la anticipación del egreso puede constituir una preocupación importante para el estudiantado, que esta preocupación dependería de la posición de su carrera en el mercado laboral y de la posición del estudiante en la estructura social, y que los discursos de transición al mundo del trabajo tienden a sobre enfatizar el potencial individual al respecto, eclipsando otros aspectos vinculados.
- PublicationMétadonnées seulementWhen "inclusion" jeopardizes the learning opportunities of deaf students: The case of Chile(UK: Oxford University Press, 2019)
;Lissi, María Rosa ;Sebastián, Christian ;Iturriaga, CristiánDeaf education in Chile has made important progress during the past 30 years, particularly during the past decade. However, many of these achievements have brought new problems and challenges. This chapter gives an overview of the paths followed by educational policy, school practices, and research in deaf education. The authors’ review of official documents and published research was enriched by the voices of eight key informants connected to deaf education. From the analysis of all the material gathered, they identified several important issues, such as the tension between policies that promote the education of deaf students in regular schools and those that acknowledge the importance of sign language in deaf education. They also included some proposals for further research and for moving forward in educational policy and practices, with a focus on the important role deaf adults can play in these processes.
- PublicationAccès libreChilean deaf adolescents’ experiences with reading: beliefs and practices associated to different types of reading activities(2017-8-9)
;Lissi, María Rosa ;Sebastián, Christian ;Iturriaga, CristiánDeaf and hard-of-hearing (D/HH) students’ difficulties with written language have been consistently reported, but there are few studies about deaf students’ reading practices and experiences. This study aimed to characterize past and current reading experiences of Chilean D/HH adolescents. There were 46 participating students (7th–12th graders). Semi-structured interviews were conducted, which addressed students’ beliefs about reading, early experiences with books, preferred reading material, and perceptions of themselves as readers. The interviews were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Results show that, for students, reading is an arduous and not much enjoyed activity; it becomes a task they try to avoid and which they circumscribe mostly to the school context. Some of them report enjoying interacting with other types of texts, especially when these include pictures, but they do not seem to consider them as true reading activities. Reading difficulties faced in their early school years are still present. Students tend to blame their difficulties on limited vocabulary knowledge and to ask for help from teachers and parents in order to understand text. Most of them are not independent readers, and having to rely on someone else to understand text perpetuates their view of themselves as non-readers. Results are interpreted within a sociocultural framework to understand learning and motivation; the discussion includes suggestions for improving teaching practices.
- PublicationAccès libreDeaf and hard of hearing students' opportunities for learning in a regular secondary school in Chile: Teacher practices and beliefs(2016-6-6)
;Lissi, María Rosa ;Iturriaga, Cristián ;Sebastián, Christian ; ;Henríquez, CatalinaHofmann, SergioThis study aimed to analyze the learning context of deaf and hard of hearing (D/HH) students in a Chilean high school, in which 50 D/HH students (7th to 12th grade) attend classes together with hearing classmates. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with seven high school teachers and five deaf education teachers, to explore their practices and beliefs regarding teaching D/HH students in regular classrooms. Ten classroom observations were also carried out in classes with and without the presence of a deaf education teacher. Interview data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Class observations enabled a better understanding of the context in which D/HH students and their teachers interact daily. Results from interview analysis provided information of teachers’ beliefs about D/HH students; regular teachers and deaf education teachers’ perceptions of the roles they play in students’ learning; accommodations made for D/HH students; and facilitators and barriers for teaching in classes with D/HH students. High school teachers’ report of their difficulties to teach D/HH students and their need to rely on deaf education teachers in the classroom was corroborated by classroom observations, which showed that most D/HH students were unable to follow the class in absence of special teacher’s support, and regular teachers had problems communicating with them. D/HH students’ opportunities for learning are highly restricted in such environment. Implications for educational inclusion policies and teacher preparation programs are discussed.