Voici les éléments 1 - 10 sur 69
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Globalizations from below : understanding the spatialities, mobilities and resources of transnational migrant entrepreneurs across the globe
    (2024) ;
    Natasha A. Webster
    ;
    ;
    Giacomo Solano
    ;
    Sakura Yamamura
    Transnational corporations have been long recognized as the building blocks of global system theory and their impact is widely acknowledged and studied. By comparison, we have insufficient understanding of transnational practices ‘from below’. We argue that focusing on transnational migrant entrepreneurship is a novel opportunity to gain insights into the social and economic processes of ‘globalization from below’. Such processes refer to the dynamics and practices initiated by actors outside the hegemonic socioeconomic spheres who, using various resources, move people, goods and ideas across national borders to create small-scale enterprises thus connecting distant places and people around the world. This special issue brings together a transdisciplinary group of researchers who examine the spatialities, mobilities and resources of transnational migrant entrepreneurs in Asia, Europe, North Africa, South America and the USA. The rich empirical base, coupled with diverse research methods, provides new insights into the phenomenon to scholars, policymakers and practitioners.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Transnational migrant entrepreneurs: understanding their dependencies, fragilities, and alternatives
    Recent research highlights that the activities of migrant entrepreneurs increasingly extend beyond national borders, thus making them relevant actors of globalization. Nevertheless, the socio-spatial conditions that frame their cross-border activities are still poorly understood. The aim of this article is twofold: first, we apply the lens of ‘globalization from below’ to study small-scale transnational migrant entrepreneurs (TMEs), thereby providing new insights into less visible globalization processes; second, we show that TMEs are not simply free economic agents but depend on connections in local and transnational spaces. Inspired by the literature on dependencies and feminist approaches, we develop a typology to address the following research question: Under which conditions is relying on others beneficial for transnational migrant entrepreneurship, and under which conditions does it lead to precariousness? Building on 86 semi-structured interviews in Colombia, Spain, and Switzerland, we uncover the diverse nature ofdependencies and reveal the unequal opportunities TMEs face.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    A Review of Transnational Migrant Entrepreneurship: Perspectives on Unequal Spatialities
    The spatialities of migrant entrepreneurship have changed dynamically in recent decades. Movements and exchanges transcend national borders more than ever, and transnational migrant entrepreneurship has become a burgeoning field of research. Yet, knowledge is dispersed across disciplines, and an understanding of contemporary spatialities is limited. We review 155 articles published in English, French, German, and Spanish since 2009, thereby providing an overview of existing knowledge on transnational migrant entrepreneurship and suggesting avenues for future research. We identify five current topical areas of research: (1) the business advantages of transnational migrant entrepreneurship, (2) the determinants of becoming a transnational migrant entrepreneur, (3) the transnational networks of migrants, (4) the economic impacts of transnational migrant entrepreneurship on home and host countries, and (5) whether local environments enable or deter entrepreneurial success. Building on our synthesis of the most recent literature, we propose three crucial dimensions which have been under-researched in past and current work, and which address the diversity of geographical locations, spatial connections, and spatial mobilities involved in transnational migrant entrepreneurship. Moreover, we put forward a set of questions for future research which will advance a comprehension of unequal opportunities among transnational migrant entrepreneurs.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Spatial Mobility Capital: A Valuable Resource for the Social Mobility of Border-Crossing Migrant Entrepreneurs?
    Spatial mobility is considered a valuable resource for social mobility. Yet, we still have an insufficient understanding of the extent to which and under what conditions geographical movement across national borders represents an asset for social advancement. Addressing this research gap, we offer a theoretical contribution to the fields of transnationalism, migration/mobility, and social geography. We focus on 86 cross-border migrant entrepreneurs who live in Barcelona (Spain), Cúcuta (Colombia), and Zurich (Switzerland), and combine geographical and mental maps, biographical interviews, ethnographic observations, and participatory Minga workshops. Our results show significant inequality in opportunity among the studied entrepreneurs and reveal different geographies of risk and uncertainty for their cross-border mobilities. We theoretically propose that the ability to use spatial mobility as a resource for social mobility depends largely on three intersecting factors: the entrepreneur’s social position, his or her location in geographical space, and his or her strategies. Moreover, we have formulated the concept of spatial mobility capital to define the necessary conditions for spatial mobility to become a valuable resource for social advancement: individuals must be in control of their spatial mobilities, such mobilities need to match their socio-economic needs and personal aspirations, and they must be able to move safely.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    LIVING THE DREAM? Ou l'odyssée d'une migrante entrepreneuse
    (Neuchâtel: Université de Neuchâtel, nccr-on the move, 2022) ; ; ;
    Leveugle, Jean
    Le rêve entrepreneurial, c’est pour qui ? Faut-il être une entrepreneuse innovatrice et à succès pour être accueillie en Suisse ? Luisa, créatrice de mode colombienne installée à Zurich, se pose des questions. Au fil de ses expériences et rencontres, elle prend conscience des obstacles qui jalonnent le parcours entrepreneurial et nuance les récits simplistes de réussite. La bande-dessinée est issue d’un projet de recherche réalisé à l’Université de Neuchâtel.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Worker Cooperatives’ Potential for Migrant Women‘s Self-Empowerment. Insights from a Case Study in New York City
    (Neuchâtel : nccr - on the move, 2021-06)
    Komposch, Nora
    ;
    Pohl, Nicholas
    ;
    Many migrant women in New York City face structural discrimination and administrative hurdles that complicate their access to safe and well-paid labor. Worker cooperatives have been shown to reduce the precarity and economic exclusion of marginalized groups. However, although much is known about worker cooperatives’ economic potential for improving workers’ lives, other social effects remain far less well explored. The present research contributes to exploring this gap by examining how joining a worker cooperative empowers migrant women in their everyday lives. We apply the concept of self-empowerment to several spheres of the everyday lives of migrant women. At an empirical level, the study focuses on migrant women who are members of nine cleaning- or care-worker cooperatives in New York City. The data were gathered using a participatory research approach and consist of interviews, participant observations, and a quantitative survey. The findings are that worker cooperatives have empowering effects on migrant women beyond the sphere of paid work. Although the additional unpaid workload as co-owners of cooperatives represents an extra burden for many migrant women, they now have better wages, more flexibility, and safer workplaces. Furthermore, they acquire a range of leadership skills, enlarge their social network beyond their ethnic communities, and earn increased esteem as co-owners of businesses. Through worker-ownership, migrant women thus increase their economic, cultural, social, and symbolic capital, which enables them to exercise more agency not only in their paid work but also in their families and leisure time.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    International students in Switzerland:: trajectories, stay rates, and intentions for post-graduate mobility
    (2019) ; ; ;
    van Mol, Christof
    ;
    Wiers-Jenssen, Jannecke
    L'augmentation de la mobilité internationale des étudiants (MIE) est devenue l'une des principales caractéristiques de la migration contemporaine. Dans un contexte de mobilité mondiale croissante et de mondialisation de l'enseignement supérieur, la migration internationale des étudiants vers la Suisse est en train de changer de manière significative, tant de par son ampleur que dans sa spécificité. La mobilité des étudiants étrangers, en raison de leur importance dans les flux migratoires actuels, fait l'objet d'une attention accrue dans les études sur les migrations et les débats politiques. Cette thèse donne un éclairage sur le caractère et la dynamique de la MIE en analysant les trajectoires migratoires des étudiants étrangers en Suisse. L'étude vise à découvrir des schémas et à identifier les facteurs qui ont une incidence positive ou négative sur les taux de séjour des étudiants étrangers et leur intégration subséquente dans le marché de l'emploi suisse, propose un cadre pour la mobilité des étudiants et, enfin, en discute les résultats dans le contexte actuel des changements en matière de politiques et débats migratoires, en incluant un regard sur les politiques migratoires en dehors de Suisse. Cette thèse est composée de quatre sections qui attirent l'attention sur a) les taux de séjour des étudiants étrangers, b) l'intention de rester en Suisse en tenant compte du statut de partenaire, c) l'intégration sur le marché suisse du travail et d) l'évolution des politiques en la matière. Les données statistiques proviennent d'un ensemble de données fusionnées du Système d'Information Universitaire Suisse (SIUS) et du Système d'Information Central sur la Migration (SYMIC), d'une série d'enquêtes sur les diplômés en Suisses et du NCCR Mobility-Migration Survey. Les méthodes statistiques sont utilisées pour tester une série de facteurs statiques et dynamiques, tels que les caractéristiques sociales et démographiques (nationalité, sexe, âge, état civil), ainsi que les caractéristiques éducatives (domaine d'étude, résultats des études, établissement d'enseignement supérieur). En outre, les procès-verbaux du discours politique de l'initiative parlementaire qui a conduit à des amendements de loi sont examinés. Enfin, les résultats sur les trajectoires éducatives des étudiants internationaux sont discutés dans le contexte des changements dans les politiques migratoires suisses., Increased international student mobility (ISM) has become one of the salient features of contemporary global migration. In the context of growing global mobility and the globalization of higher education, international student migration to Switzerland is changing significantly in both extent and character. Due to the importance of international students in current migration flows, their mobility is receiving increased attention in migration studies and policy debates. This dissertation sheds light on the character and dynamics of ISM by analyzing the migration trajectories of international students in Switzerland. The study aims to discover patterns and identify factors which have a positive or negative impact on the stay rates of international students and their subsequent integration into the Swiss labour market, proposes a framework for student mobility, and finally discusses the results in a context of current changes in migration policies and debates including a glance at migration policies outside Switzerland. The thesis is composed of four sections which draw attention to a) stay rates of international students, b) intentions to stay in Switzerland, taking partnership status into account, c) integration into the Swiss labour market, and d) changes in relevant policies. The statistical data originates from various datasets on international students, from a merged dataset of the Swiss Higher Education Information System (SHIS) and the Central Migration Information System (ZEMIS)1, a series of the Swiss Graduate Surveys, and the NCCR Mobility and Migration Survey. Statistical methods are used to test a series of static and dynamic factors, such as social and demographic characteristics (nationality, gender, age, civil status), as well as educational characteristics (study field, study performance, the higher education institution). Furthermore, the minutes of the discourse of the parliamentary initiative that led to law amendments are examined. Finally, the results on the educational trajectories of international students are discussed in the context of recent changes in Swiss migration policies.