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    From “Primitive Migration” to “Climate Refugees”: The Curious Fate of the Natural Environment in Migration Studies
    Beginning with Friedrich Ratzel, the founders of migration studies all mentioned the natural environment as an important determinant of human mobility. As migration theories grew in coherence and complexity over the course of the twentieth century, however, environmental considerations generally disappeared from explanations of displacement. They would reappear in a largely unconnected discourse stressing the threat of future waves of “environmental migrants” in the end-of-the-century context of climate change anxiety. This alarmist stance was heavily criticized by several migration scholars during the same period of time as a corpus of empirical studies emerged that reconsidered the possible impact of the environment on migration. The purpose of this article is to analyze the intellectual history of this swing of the pendulum. The first part examines the rationale for the temporary disappearance of the environment from migration studies, as this major shift has not yet been fully or systematically studied. The second part considers the renewal of interest in environmental migration. Finally, the last part argues that although a solid body of new research documents the contemporary migration–environment nexus, additional work is needed to reembed the environment more firmly within migration theories, taking into account the increased focus on the nature–society nexus, which has recently expanded in geography., Comenzando con Ratzel, todos los fundadores de los estudios sobre migración mencionaron el entorno natural como un determinante importante de la movilidad humana. Sin embargo, a medida que las teorías de la migración crecieron en coherencia y complejidad en el curso del siglo XX, las consideraciones ambientales generalmente desaparecieron de las explicaciones sobre el desplazamiento. Ellas reaparecerían en un discurso en gran medida desconectado que destacaba la amenaza de futuras oleadas de “migrantes ambientales” dentro del contexto de ansiedad por el cambio climático, a finales del siglo. Esta postura alarmista fue duramente criticada por varios estudiosos de la migración durante ese mismo período a medida que emergió un cuerpo de estudios empíricos que reconsideraron el posible impacto del medio ambiente sobre la migración. El propósito de este artículo es analizar la historia intelectual de esta vuelta del péndulo. La primera parte está dedicada a examinar la racionalidad de la desaparición temporal del medio ambiente en los estudios de migración, por cuanto este cambio mayor todavía no ha sido estudiado ni completa ni sistemáticamente. La segunda parte considera la renovación del interés en la migración ambiental. Finalmente, la última parte sostiene que aunque hay un sólido cuerpo de nueva investigación que documenta el nexo contemporáneo migración-medio ambiente, se necesita más trabajo para reincorporar con mayor firmeza el medio ambiente dentro de las teorías de la migración, tomando en cuenta la creciente focalización del nexo naturaleza-sociedad, que se ha expandido últimamente en geografía.
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    Progress in the study of climatic extremes in northern and central Europe
    (1999)
    Heino, R
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    Brazdil, R
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    Forland, E
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    Tuomenvirta, H
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    Alexandersson, H
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    Beniston, Martin
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    Pfister, Christian
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    Rosenhagen, G
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    Rosner, S
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    Wibig, J
    A study of the long-term changes of various climatic extremes was made jointly by a number of European countries. It was found that the changes in maximum and minimum temperatures follow, in broad terms, the corresponding well-documented mean temperature changes. Minimum temperatures, however, have increased slightly more than maximum temperatures, although both have increased. As a result, the study confirms that the diurnal temperature range has mostly decreased during the present century in Northern and Central Europe. Frost has become less frequent. Two extreme-related precipitation characteristics, the annual maximum daily precipitation and the number of days with precipitation greater than or equal to 10 mm, show no major trends or changes in their interannual variability. An analysis of return periods indicated that in the Nordic countries there were high frequencies of 'extraordinary' 1-day rainfalls both in the 1930s and since the 1980s. There have been no long-term changes in the number of high wind speeds in the German Eight. Occurrences of thunderstorms and hails show a decreasing tendency in the Czech Republic during the last 50 years. Finally, using proxy data sources, a 500-year temperature and precipitation event graph for the Swiss Mittelland is presented. It shows large interdecadal variations as well as the exceptionality of the latest decade 1986-1995.
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    Innovation networks and territorial dynamics : a tentative typology
    (Berlin: Springer Verlag, 1994) ; ;
    Lecoq, Bruno
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    Johansson, Börje
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    Karlsson, Charlie
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    Westin, Lars
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  • Publication
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    L'enseignement du français aux requérants d'asile dans le canton de Vaud (non publié)
    (Lausanne Fondation pour l'accueil des requérants d'asile (FAREAS), 1999)