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- PublicationMétadonnées seulementImportance of leadership in cardiac arrest situations: from simulation to real life and back(2013-4-18)
;Hunziker, Sabina ; ;Semmer, NorbertMarsch, StephanThe 2010 American Heart Association guidelines now re- commend leadership training in Advanced Cardiac Life Support courses. In this review we provide a comprehens- ive summary of data derived from clinical studies that in- vestigated the importance of leadership in cardiopulmon- ary resuscitation (CPR). Only a few, mostly observational, studies have been conducted under real-life conditions be- cause of the high heterogeneity of the situations, diffi- culties in capturing the initial phase of CPR, and ethical issues. Well-controlled studies in the human simulator can fill existing gaps and provide important insights. High-fi- delity video-assisted simulator studies from different re- search groups have shown that a prolonged process of teambuilding is associated with significant shortcomings in CPR, whereas effective leadership improves team per- formance. In addition, randomised controlled studies have provided evidence that medical students receiving leader- ship training subsequently showed improved CPR perform- ance, which was sustained after a follow up of 4 months. In addition, leadership is influenced by gender and other factors such as emotional stress. Future studies are needed to investigate cultural differences and how findings from the simulator can be transferred to real-life situations.
- PublicationMétadonnées seulementIt's not only clients: Studying emotion work with clients and co-workers with an event-sampling approach(2005)
; ;Rochat, SylvieZapf, DieterA group of 78 young employees in service and non-service professions reported 848 task related interactions at work over I week using a variant of the Rochester Interaction Record which measured emotion work requirements, emotional dissonance, and deviance. Multi-level analyses showed that dissonance was more likely in interactions with customers, whereas deviance, that is, the violation of display rules by acting out one's felt emotion, was more likely in co-worker interactions. Well-being in the interaction was lower (a) for interactions with emotion work requirements, (b) for dissonance, even after controlling for felt negative emotions, and (c) for deviance. Negative emotion displayed partially mediated the relationship between deviance and well-being. Regarding the relationship of more stable job related attitudes, psychosomatic complaints, and aggregated scores of social interactions, fewer effects were found than in questionnaire studies, which may be due to the fact that only interactions that lasted at least 10 minutes were assessed, as is customary in research with this instrument. Among the effects found, however, many involved proportions rather than frequency of interactions, which raises the possibility of balancing and legitimizing effects of non-stressful interactions.
- PublicationAccès libreHuman Factors in the operating room - the surgeons viewThe quality of surgical performance depends not only on the technical skills of the surgical team, but also on non-technical skills. Identification and improvement of such non-technical skills is an important aim to improve overall surgical outcomes. Non technical skills primarily include three factors. The first factor is efficient communication among a multidisciplinary team. This requires strong leadership and coor- dination of role-related tasks for the surgical team members. The second factor is coping with distractors in the operating room. Distractors may impact team performance and must be identified and reduced to ensure maximum concentration in the most of unavoidable distractions. The third factor is the impact of stress and fatigue of the surgical team. Potential methods of addressing these topics include training, procedural support for human factors requirements, and specified phases for information reflection as well as for mental recovery
- PublicationMétadonnées seulementWork characteristics and well-being of Swiss apprentices entering the labor market(2000)
;Kälin, Wolfgang ;Semmer, Norbert ;Elfering, Achim ; ;Dauwalder, Jean-Pierre ;Heunert, Sibyllevon Roten, Fabienne CrettazYoung people in five occupations were investigated before the end of vocational training and again one year later (N = 675). In general, working conditions were within the range found in adult samples, with some values for stressors, however, being on the higher end. Conditions were especially good for electronic technicians, rather good for bank clerks, but comparatively worse for cooks and salespeople. For nurses, a stressful job was combined with good social conditions. Attitudes are positive towards life in general but rather low towards work. Stress symptoms (irritability) are on the high end of the typical range for adults, Where there are changes over time, they are to the better for many working conditions and for work attitudes, Stress symptoms, however, tend to increase, More than 50 per cent of participants change employers. They seem to profit from leaving which is remarkable because many of them did not have a choice, Overall, stability seems more prominent.
- PublicationMétadonnées seulementGroup research using high-fidelity experimental simulations(New York: Routledge, 2012)
; ;Semmer, Norbert K. ;Hunziker, SabinaMarsch, Stephan U
- PublicationMétadonnées seulementLeadership in medical emergencies is not gender specific - Reply(2012-4-2)
;Marsch, Stephan U ;Hunziker, Sabina ;Hunziker, Patrick ;Semmer, Norbert K.
- PublicationMétadonnées seulementLeadership in medical emergencies depends on gender and personality(2011)
;Streiff, Seraina ; ;Hunziker, Sabina ;Buehlmann, Cyrill ;Semmer, Norbert K. ;Hunziker, PatrickMarsch, Stephan UNTRODUCTION: Leadership is an important predictor of team performance in medical emergencies. There are no data on why some healthcare workers take the lead in emergencies while others do not. Accordingly, the aim of the study was to determine predictors of leadership in a medical emergency. METHODS: Two hundred thirty-seven medical students in fourth year of medical school participated and filled in a questionnaire assessing knowledge, experience, and personality traits. Students were randomly assigned to 79 groups of three. Each group was confronted with a standardized scenario of a simulated witnessed cardiac arrest. The primary outcome was the predictors of the number of leadership statements during the first 3 minutes of the cardiac arrest. RESULTS: In the first 3 minutes of the cardiac arrest, the participants made a median of five leadership statements (range, 0-22; interquartile range, 2). Thirteen participants (5.5%) made no single leadership statement. Multivariate analysis revealed that male gender (unstandardized coefficient, 1.9; P = 0.01), extraversion (unstandardized coefficient, 0.9; P = 0.02), and agreeableness (unstandardized coefficient, -1.1; P = 0.023) predicted leadership statements. Context knowledge, context experience, and other personality traits had no significant effect on leadership. CONCLUSIONS: During the initial phase of a medical emergency, there is a substantial interindividual variation in the amount of leadership. Leadership behavior as assessed by the number of leadership statements is determined by gender and personality and not by knowledge or experience.
- PublicationMétadonnées seulementTemporal Matters in the Study of Work Groups in Organizations(2007)
- PublicationMétadonnées seulementValidation of the French version of the team reflexivity scale of Carter and West, 1998(2006)
;Facchin, Stephanie ; ;Gurtner, Andrea ;Cohen, DaliaDupuis, AnnickSeveral studies found reflexivity -the extent to which team discuss objectives, strategies and processes and adapt them to changes- to be related to team efficacy. Two studies were conducted with 80 teams (320 participants) to validate French version of reflexivity scale. In study 1 exploratory factor analysis revealed 3 factors which partly confirms the 2 factor structure (task reflexivity and social reflexivity) expected from the original study (Carter and West, 1998). Two items of the original task reflexivity scale load on a third factor we named strategic reflexivity. The three factor structure was replicated in study 2 with confirmatory factor analysis. Criterion validity is proved by correlations between reflexivity and team performance. Task, social and strategic reflexivity correlate with different aspects of team effectiveness. The French version of reflexivity scale is reliable and appropriate for evaluating team reflexivity. (c) 2006 Association internationale de psychologie du travail de langue francaise. Publie par Elsevier Masson SAS. Tons droits reserves.