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  • Publication
    Métadonnées seulement
    Constructing a shared understanding in a new technological environment: A situated and comprehensive approach to ICT in educational settings
    Since 2000, a series of pedagogical experiences based upon the use of ICT has been initiated on the instigation of the Swiss confederation in order to cope with the constraints of the “dual system” of training at work in vocational schools. In this dual system, the apprentices spend one or two days a week at school and the other days in their workplaces. Teachers often view this system as a source of discontinuity and difficulty. Consequently, the use of an e-learning platform was perceived as a means of reducing the inconveniences incumbent to this discontinuity, through a virtual extension of the classroom. Drawing upon a socio-cultural approach to human activity, our study was aimed at evaluating these pedagogical experiences by adopting a comprehensive outlook which examines: a) the processes which are involved from the design of the projects to their realization; b) the organisational context in which these experiments take place; c) the meaning that the various groups of actors give to these experiments; d) the technological constraints to which the actors are faced Beyond a large diversity in educational practices, our observations show that all the projects require a restructuration of the time dedicated to teaching and to individual learning. They are also characterised by an unpredictability which is mostly due to technological and organisational problems. As a consequence, the projects rarely function as it was planned. This unpredictability creates much uncertainty and obliges the actors to continuously reframe their activities and to adapt their actions to various emerging difficulties. In these conditions, it is very difficult for everybody to anticipate new modes of functioning. In this context, many taken-for-granted educational assumptions are called into question so that the teachers and the apprentices have to construct a new understanding of their reciprocal expectations and obligations. This construction is a long-term process which is punctuated by many misunderstandings concerning basic assumptions such as: what does teaching and learning mean? What is communication through ICT? What is the role of a teacher? What can be expected from the school organisation? In brief, the construction of a shared understanding and system of reciprocal expectations appears to be a situated process which depends upon various dimensions and unplanned elements which are liable to reorient the initial intentions and activities. On a theoretical levels, these findings show that defining the construction of intersubjectivity as an interpersonal process is far too reductive. Interpersonal relationships and shared understanding are always embedded in organisational, institutional and technological environments which have their own constraints. Thus, constructing the meaning of new educational practices of communication cannot be parted from the conditions in which a project is designed and realised. In this perspective, drawing upon a situated approach to human activity is a promising way of analysing various forms of intersubjectivity in vocational training as well as of investigating the limits of this concept
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Developing computer-support learning environments in vocational education: A socio-cultural approach to the study of pilot projects
    In this paper, we present a research which was aimed at evaluating the use of platforms for e-learning in twenty vocational schools in Switzerland. The research has been carried out over a two-year period (2002-2004) in which each of these schools developed a pilot project that gave them the opportunity of experimenting various forms of computer-support learning environments in order to meet their different training needs. Drawing upon a socio-cultural approach, our research questions focus upon the meaning that the various actors give to their pilot projects; the way in which they make sense and appropriate new tools of communication; the influence of these tools on educational practices; the organisational and technological conditions that enable the realisation of a school project; the various resources used (or not) by the project teams. In order to answer these questions, the method puts emphasis upon a qualitative approach: interviews with the leaders of the projects and all the teachers involved in the projects; participation in the meetings of the project teams; observation of training situations; analysis of the documents and e-mails which were exchanged through the platforms; questionnaires addressed to the students and teachers involved in the school projects. The results presented in this paper will concern two different aspects. First, we shall describe the educational practices that have been developed in the new learning environments that the schools have experimented. Second, we shall analyse a series of dimensions which account for some positive outcomes in the school projects.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    De la conception à la pratique : configuration et reconfiguration d’un dispositif de formation des enseignants aux technologies de l’information et de la communication
    Constatant que la formation des enseignants aux technologies de l’information et de la communication (TIC) pose des problèmes spécifiques, cet article a pour but d’engager une réflexion sur ce thème. Nos réflexions s’appuient sur une expérience de formation réalisée dans 23 écoles professionnelles suisses engagées dans un programme national de soutien à l’utilisation pédagogique des TIC. L’article décrit la manière dont le dispositif de formation prévu a été mis en pratique, les difficultés auxquelles il a donné lieu et les réponses que les acteurs ont élaborées pour faire face à ces difficultés. Nous montrons qu’une analyse du déroulement effectif d’un dispositif de formation et des transformations qu’il subit constitue un élément essentiel pour orienter les futures actions de formation et penser la place des apprenants dans un dispositif de formation.
  • Publication
    Métadonnées seulement
    Quand l'usage des ICT fait-il le plus sens, en contexte de formation?
    Exposé des principaux résultats de l'évaluation des projets des écoles pilotes du projet ICT-ISPFP 2000-2004
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    E-learning dans les écoles professionnelles. Evaluation d'expériences pilotes. Rapport final
    (USI et Université de Lausanne, 2004) ; ;
    Mazzoni, Elvis
    ;
    Tomasetto, Carlo
    ;
    Fiorilli, Barbara
    Ce rapport présente l'évaluation d'une série d'expériences de e-learning réalisées dans une vingtaine d'écoles professionnelles des trois régions linguistiques de la Suisse. Il est structuré de la manière suivante : L'introduction expose le cadre institutionnel de cette évaluation, ainsi que l'approche conceptuelle et la démarche méthodologique que nous avons adoptées. Les résultats sont regroupés en deux grandes parties : La première partie a pour but de présenter de manière descriptive la diversité des projets que nous avons analysés au cours des années scolaires 2002-2003 et 2003-2004. Un premier chapitre caractérise ainsi les vingt-trois écoles pilotes concernées par ce programme d'appui à l'intégration pédagogique des ICT dans la formation professionnelle. Le deuxième chapitre s'attache à présenter quelques expériences types de manière plus détaillée, pour montrer en particulier à quel point chaque expérience est ancrée dans un contexte donné et poursuit des buts qui lui sont propres. C'est dans le troisième chapitre qu'une perspective évaluative est adoptée : la question centrale est alors de savoir si les projets ont pu être réalisés selon les intentions initiales et atteindre les objectifs chaque fois visés. La deuxième partie du rapport adopte un autre regard sur les expériences pilotes, en analysant l'impact de l'utilisation des technologies de la formation sur les dimensions psychologiques, pédagogiques et organisationnelles des projets. Le rapport se conclut par un ensemble de recommandations issues desobservations et des analyses présentées dans les chapitres précédents.