A study on the seasonal epidemiology of Anoplocephala spp.-infection in horses and the appropriate treatment using a praziquantel gel (Droncit (R) 9% oral gel)
2006, Roelfstra, Lise-Lore, Betschart, Bruno, Pfister, Kurt
In a study on the seasonal dynamics of the gastro-intestinal nematode egg production in horses, one breeding farm also revealed a particularly high prevalence of Anoplocephola spp. infection. Consequently, this farm was chosen for analysing the seasonal pattern of the tapeworm egg excretion over a one year period in order to establish the most favourable periods for an appropriate and successful cestocidal treatment. The seasonal analysis showed a significantly higher (p < 0,05) Anoplocephala spp. egg excretion between July and October, i.e. during the second part of the grazing period. This result clearly underlines the importance of a cestocidal treatment during that period of the year Subsequently, horses of this farm and of a second farm with a high prevalence of Anoplocephola spp. were used to evaluate the efficacy of praziquantel in a specific oral gel formulation for horses under field conditions. The efficacy of praziquantel was tested in a total of 33 horses from the two farms harbouring a coproscopically detected Anoplocephala spp. infection prior to treatment. Praziquantel (Droncit (R) 9%, oral gel, 1mg/kg bodyweight) was administered to the horses according to their body weight. The efficacy of the drug was evaluated ten days after treatment by a double faecal ana lysis. Thereby, no Anoplocepholo spp. eggs were found. in the faeces of 32 horses (97%). The single horse remaining positive for Anoplocephola spp. eggs did not completely swallow the anthelmintic gel and consequently, did not receive the appropriate dose of the drug.
Protein expression profile of Gasterophilus intestinalis larvae causing horse gastric myiasis and characterization of horse immune reaction
2009, Roelfstra, Liselore, Deeg, Cornelia A., Hauck, Stefanie M., Buse, Christina, Membrez, Mathieu, Betschart, Bruno, Pfister, Kurt
Background Little information is available on the immunological aspect of parasitic Gasterophilus intestinalis (Diptera, Oestridae) larvae causing horse gastric myiasis. The objectives of this research were to analyze the protein content of larval crude extracts of the migrating second and third larvae (L2 and L3) of G. intestinalis in order to characterize the immune response of horses.
Results The proteomic profile of L2 and L3, investigated by using one and two dimensional approaches, revealed a migration pattern specific to each larval stage. Furthermore, Western blots were performed with horse sera and with sera of Balb/c mice immunised with the larval crude extracts of L2 or L3, revealing a different immune reaction in naturally infected horses vs. artificially induced immune reaction in mice. The comparisons of the immunoblot profiles demonstrate that the stage L2 is more immunogenic than the stage L3 most likely as an effect of the highest enzymatic production of L2 while migrating through the host tissues. Fifteen proteins were identified by mass spectrometry.
Conclusion This work provides further information into the understanding of the interaction between G. intestinalis and their host and by contributing a novel scheme of the proteomic profile of the main larval stages.
PCR Detection and Serological Evidence of Granulocytic Ehrlichial Infection in Roe Deer (Capreolus capreolus) and Chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra)
2002, Liz, Jorge S., Sumner, John W., Pfister, Kurt, Brossard, Michel
The role of wild mammals, such as roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra), in the epidemiology of granulocytic ehrlichiae in Switzerland was investigated. We tested blood samples for Ehrlichia phagocytophila genogroup 16S rRNA gene sequences by PCR and for immunoglobulin G antibodies against granulocytic ehrlichiae by indirect fluorescent-antibody assay (IFA). Overall means of 60.9% of 133 roe deer serum samples and 28.2% of 39 chamois serum samples were seroreactive by IFA. PCR results were positive for 18.4% of 103 roe deer serum samples as well. None of the 24 chamois blood samples tested were positive by PCR. Partial 16S rRNA gene and groESL heat shock operon sequences of three roe deer samples tested showed strong degrees of homology (99.7 and 98.6%, respectively) with the sequences of granulocytic ehrlichiae isolated from humans. These results confirm that chamois, and particularly roe deer, are commonly infected with granulocytic ehrlichiae and provide evidence that these wild mammals are potential reservoirs for granulocytic ehrlichiae in Switzerland.
Light and electron microscopy studies of the midgut and salivary glands of second and third instars of the horse stomach bot, Gasterophilus intestinalis
2010, Roelfstra, Lise-Lore, Vlimant, Michèle, Betschart, Bruno, Pfister, Kurt, Diehl, Peter-Allan
A morphological study of the midgut and salivary glands of second and third instars of Gasterophilus intestinalis (De Geer) (Diptera: Oestridae) was conducted by light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The midgut is anteriorly delimited by a proventriculus, without caeca, and is composed of posterior foregut and anterior midgut tissue from which a double-layered peritrophic matrix is produced. The midgut can be divided into anterior, median and posterior regions on the basis of the structural and physiological variations of the columnar cells which occur along its length. Two other types of cell were identified: regenerative cells scattered throughout the columnar cells, and, more rarely, endocrine cells of two structural types (closed and open). Different secretion mechanisms (merocrine, apocrine and microapocrine) occur along the midgut epithelium. Abundant microorganisms are observed in the endoperitrophic space of the anterior midgut. The origin and nature of these microorganisms remain unknown. No structural differences are observed between the second and third instar midguts. The salivary glands of G. intestinalis second and third instars consist of a pair of elongated tubular structures connected to efferent ducts which unite to form a single deferent duct linked dorsally to the pharynx. Several intermediate cells, without cuticle, make the junction with the salivary gland epithelium layer. Cytological characteristics of the gland epithelial cells demonstrate high cellular activity and some structural variations are noticed between the two larval stages.