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- PublicationAccès libreAbsolute frequency referencing in the long wave infrared using a quantum cascade laser frequency combOptical frequency combs (OFCs) based on quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) have transformed mid-infrared spectroscopy. However, QCL-OFCs have not yet been exploited to provide a broadband absolute frequency reference. We demonstrate this possibility by performing comb-calibrated spectroscopy at 7.7 µm (1305 cm−1) using a QCL-OFC referenced to a molecular transition. We obtain 1.5·10−10 relative frequency stability (100-s integration time) and 3·10−9 relative frequency accuracy, comparable with state-of-the-art solutions relying on nonlinear frequency conversion. We show that QCL-OFCs can be locked with sub-Hz-level stability to a reference for hours, thus promising their use as metrological tools for the mid-infrared.
- PublicationAccès libreCoherently-averaged dual comb spectrometer at 7.7 µm with master and follower quantum cascade lasers(2021-6)
; ; ;Terrasanta, Giulio ; ; ;Gianella, Michele ;Jouy, Pierre ;Kapsalidis, Filippos ;Shahmohammadi Mehran, Mehran ;Beck Matthias, Matthias ; ;Faist, Jérôme ;Emmenegger, Lukas ; ;Hugi, AndreasWe demonstrate coherent averaging of the multi-heterodyne beat signal between two quantum cascade laser frequency combs in a master-follower configuration. The two combs are mutually locked by acting on the drive current to control their relative offset frequency and by radio-frequency extraction and injection locking of their intermode beat signal to stabilize their mode spacing difference. By implementing an analog common-noise subtraction scheme, a reduction of the linewidth of all heterodyne beat notes by five orders of magnitude is achieved compared to the free-running lasers. We compare stabilization and post-processing corrections in terms of amplitude noise. While they give similar performances in terms of signal-to-noise ratio, real-time processing of the stabilized signal is less demanding in terms of computational power. Lastly, a proof-of-principle spectroscopic measurement was performed, showing the possibility to reduce the amount of data to be processed by three orders of magnitude, compared to the free-running system.
- PublicationMétadonnées seulementInterferometric measurements beyond the coherence length of the laser sourceInterferometric measurements beyond the coherence length of the laser are investigated theoretically and experimentally in this paper. Thanks to a high-bandwidth detection, high-speed digitizers and a fast digital signal processing, we have demonstrated that the limit of the coherence length can be overcome. Theoretically, the maximal measurable displacement is infinite provided that the sampling rate is sufficiently short to prevent any phase unwrapping error. We could verify experimentally this concept using a miniature interferometer prototype, based on a frequency stabilized vertical cavity surface emitting laser. Displacement measurements at optical path differences up to 36 m could be realized with a relative stability better than 0.1 ppm, although the coherence length estimated from the linewidth and frequency noise measurements do not exceed 6.6 m.
- PublicationMétadonnées seulementRb-stabilized laser at 1572 nm for CO2 monitoringWe have developed a compact rubidium-stabilized laser system to serve as optical frequency reference in the 1.55-m wavelength region, in particular for CO2 monitoring at 1572 nm. The light of a fiber-pigtailed distributed feedback (DFB) laser emitting at 1560 nm is frequency-doubled and locked to a sub-Doppler rubidium transition at 780 nm using a 2-cm long vapor glass cell. Part of the DFB laser light is modulated with an electro-optical modula-tor enclosed in a Fabry-Perot cavity, generating an optical frequency comb with spectral cover-age extending from 1540 nm to 1580 nm. A second slave DFB laser emitting at 1572 nm and offset-locked to one line of the frequency comb shows a relative frequency stability of 1·10-11at 1 s averaging time and <4·10-12 from 1 hour up to 3 days.
- PublicationMétadonnées seulementDFB-ridge laser diodes at 894 nm for Cesium atomic clocksTime and frequency applications are in need of high accuracy and high stability clocks. Optically pumped compact industrial Cesium atomic clocks are a promising approach that could satisfy these demands. However, the stability of these clocks relies, among others, on the performances of the laser diodes that are used. This issue has led the III-V Lab to commit to the European Euripides-LAMA project that aims to provide competitive compact optical Cesium clocks for ground applications. This work will provide key experience for further space technology qualification. III-V Lab is in charge of the design, fabrication and reliability of Distributed-Feedback diodes (DFB) at 894 nm (D1 line of Cesium) and 852 nm (D2 line). LTF-Unine is in charge of their spectral characterisation. The use of D1 line for pumping will provide simplified clock architecture compared to the D2 line pumping thanks to simpler atomic transitions and a larger spectral separation between lines in the 894 nm case. Also, D1 line pumping overcomes the issue of unpumped “idle states” that occur with D2 line. The modules should provide narrow linewidth (<1 MHz), very good reliability in time and, crucially, be less sensitive to optical feedback. The development of the 894 nm wavelength is grounded on III-V Lab results for 852 nm DFB. We show here results from Al-free active region with InGaAsP quantum well Ridge DFB lasers. We obtain the D1 Cs line (894.4 nm) at 67°C and 165 mA (optical power of 40 mW) with a high side mode suppression ratio. The wavelength evolution with temperature and current are respectively 0.06 nm/K and 0.003 nm/mA. The laser linewidth is less than 1 MHz. The Relative Intensity Noise (RIN) and the frequency noise are respectively less than 10-12 Hz-1 @ f ≥ 10 Hz and 109 Hz2/Hz @ f ≥ 10 Hz.
- PublicationAccès libreCompact rubidium-stabilized multi-frequency reference source in the 1.55-μm regionCombining light modulation and frequency conversion techniques, a compact and simple frequency-stabilized optical frequency comb spanning over 45 nm in the 1.56-μm wavelength region is demonstrated. It benefits from the high-frequency stability achievable from rubidium atomic transitions at 780 nm probed in a saturation absorption scheme, which is transferred to the 1.56-μm spectral region via a second-harmonic generation process. The optical frequency comb is generated by an electro-optic modulator enclosed in a Fabry–Perot cavity that is injected by the fundamental frequency stabilized laser. Frequency stability better than 2 kHz has been demonstrated on time scales between 1000 s and 2 days both at 1560 nm, twice the rubidium wavelength, and for a comb line at 1557 nm.
- PublicationAccès libreMethods and evaluation of frequency aging in distributed-feedback laser diodes for rubidium atomic clocksDistributed-feedback laser diodes emitting at 780nm have been evaluated, with respect to the aging of the injection current required for reaching the rubidium D2 resonance line. Results obtained for lasers operating in air and in vacuum for 9 months are reported. When operated at constant temperature, the laser current required for emission at the wavelength of the desired atomic resonance is found to decrease by 50 to 80 uA per month. The impact of this result on the lifetime and long-term performances of laser-pumped rubidium atomic clocks is discussed. © 2011 Optical Society of America OCIS codes: 140.2020, 350.4800.
- PublicationAccès libreEvaluation of the frequency stability of a VCSEL locked to a micro-fabricated Rubidium vapour cellWe present our evaluation of a compact laser system made of a 795 nm VCSEL locked to the Rubidium absorption line of a micro-fabricated absorption cell. The spectrum of the VCSEL was characterised, including its RIN, FM noise and line-width. We optimised the signal-to-noise ratio and determined the frequency shifts versus the cell temperature and the incident optical power. The frequency stability of the laser (Allan deviation) was measured using a high-resolution wavemeter and an ECDL-based reference. Our results show that a fractional instability of ≥ 10-9 may be reached at any timescale between 1 and 100'000 s. The MEMS cell was realised by dispensing the Rubidium in a glass-Silicon preform which was then, sealed by anodic bonding. The overall thickness of the reference cell is 1.5 mm. No buffer gas was added. The potential applications of this compact and low-consumption system range from optical interferometers to basic laser spectroscopy. It is particularly attractive for mobile and space instruments where stable and accurate wavelength references are needed.
- PublicationAccès libreFrequency of Boundary-Layer-Top Fluctuations in Convective and Stable Conditions Using Laser Remote Sensing(2010)
;Martucci, Giovanni ; ;Mitev, ValentinRichner, HansThe planetary boundary-layer (PBL) height is determined with high temporal and altitude resolution from lidar backscatter profiles. Then, the frequencies of daytime thermal updrafts and downdrafts and of nighttime gravity waves are obtained applying a fast Fourier transform on the temporal fluctuation of the PBL height. The principal frequency components of each spectrum are related to the dominant processes occurring at the daytime and nighttime PBL top. Two groups of cases are selected for the study: one group combines daytime cases, measured in weak horizontal wind conditions and dominated by convection. The cases show higher updraft and downdraft frequencies for the shallow, convective boundary layer and lower frequencies for a deep PBL. For cases characterized by strong horizontal winds, the frequencies directly depend on the wind speed. The temporal variation of the PBL height is determined also in the likely presence of lee waves. For nighttime cases, the main frequency components in the spectra do not show a real correlation with the nocturnal PBL height. Altitude fluctuations of the top of the nocturnal boundary layer are observed even though the boundary layer is statically stable. These oscillations are associated with the wind shear effect and with buoyancy waves at the PBL top.
- PublicationAccès libreLaser offset-frequency locking up to 20 GHz using a low-frequency electrical filter techniqueA simple, easy-to-implement, and robust technique is reported to offset lock two semiconductor lasers with a frequency difference easily adjustable up to a couple of tens of gigahertz (10 and 19 GHz experimentally demonstrated). The proposed scheme essentially makes use of low-frequency control electronics and may be implemented with any type of single mode semiconductor laser, without any requirement for the laser linewidth. The technique is shown to be very similar to the wavelength modulation spectroscopy method commonly used for laser stabilization onto molecular absorption lines, as demonstrated by experimental results obtained using 935 nm laser diodes.