Voici les éléments 1 - 10 sur 114
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Shaping the american mind to go to war. A cognitive-pragmatic analysis of war rhetoric in America post-Vietnam
    Cette thèse explore la rhétorique guerrière des États-Unis suivant la guerre du Vietnam, à partir de l’analyse d’un corpus formé de discours présidentiels allant de Ronald Reagan en 1980, jusqu’à Barack Obama en 2011. Les thématiques de la modulation de l’identité et de la menace de l’ennemi sont étudiées par le biais de plusieurs mécanismes, notamment ceux de la présupposition et de la métaphore, pour montrer que des effets de contrainte récurrents et sous-jacents contribuent à ce que l’interprétation du discours prenne une direction consistante et unifiée, même lorsque ce qui est défendu est de retirer les troupes américaines. L’objectif est double: premièrement, en combinant les apports théoriques de la cognitive linguistique et pragmatique (principalement ceux de l’intégration conceptuelle et de la théorie de la pertinence), il est possible d’arriver à des analyses linguistiques qui traitent à la fois du discours au moment de l’interprétation, et de ses effets dans le long terme. Ces derniers culminent en la formation et consolidation d’un cadre (“frame”) prédominant, qui fournit un contexte très accessible au sein duquel l’interprétation de nouveaux conflits peut facilement trouver pertinence, en se basant sur un raisonnement familier. Le second objectif est d’approfondir la notion de communication persuasive, particulièrement les mécanismes qui soutiennent son efficacité, notamment dans le temps, et face à l’apparition de faits contradictoires. Abstract: This thesis explores American War Rhetoric post-Vietnam, stemming from a large corpus-based analysis of presidential speeches from Ronald Reagan in 1980, to Barack Obama in 2011. The issues of identity and threat construction are considered through the lens of several mechanisms, mainly those of presupposition and metaphor, to show that recurring, underlying constraining effects serve to promote the interpretation of the discourse in a consistent and unified direction, even when what is argued is the withdrawal of troops. The objective is two fold: firstly, the combination of cognitive linguistic and cognitive pragmatic frameworks (mainly those of Conceptual Blending Theory and Relevance Theory) helps to provide linguistic analyses which can both tackle the online interpretation of discourse, along with its effects in the long-term. These amount to the formation and constant consolidation of an overarching frame, which provides a very accessible context within which the interpretation of new conflicts can easily find relevance, based upon familiar reasoning. The second objective is to get to a fuller explanatory account of the mechanisms which underlie the efficiency of persuasive discourse, with a special focus on its lasting efficiency, including when conflicting facts come to light.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    The relevance-affective model: explaining narrative empathy within relevance theory
    (2022-07-29)
    Pozner, Ismaël
    ;
    Narrative empathy is the sharing of similar feelings with fictional characters as a result of perceiving or imagining their depicted situation. Cognitive narratology presents interesting accounts on narrative empathy but fails to explain it from a processing standpoint. Conversely, (narrative) empathy has not been explained using relevance theory (RT) despite the development of non-propositional effects in the field over the last decades. There is untapped potential in explaining narrative empathy using new notions from RT. This goal of this interdisciplinary work is to present a model called the Model of Affective Relevance (MAR) to describe the functioning of empathy and narrative empathy. I gather insights about (narrative) empathy in the literature affective science and cognitive narratology to establish the crucial components of the model. I use RT as a chassis and add successive addons to incorporate new cognitive mechanisms to fit the requirements for narrative empathy. The first addon is procedural meaning to integrate affective effects and components of emotional communication. The second addon is metacognitive acquaintance in which we introduce non-propositional representations of a novel kind in RT to explain mentalistic inferences. The third addon is goal relevance to account for engagement within RT and differences of appraisals for characters in stories. With its design, the MAR can describe appraisals as patterns of activations, the way experiences are stored and deployed in processing, and the mutual influences of affects on cognition and vice-versa within the scope of RT. I propose that empathy is only one possible outcome of the model in which we, observers, engage our own goals in a target. There must be connivance between the target’s attributed goals and ours from our perspective. This inferential process relies on a constant affective attunement in which processing cues of the character’s situation activates relevant representations called ‘metacognitive acquaintance’. The latter notion involves activations of previous experiences associating events to mental states and implies an update of the observer’s (or reader’s) affective state. Finally, I discuss the MAR by comparing it to other models and show how they bring interesting observations about the representational nature of the MAR and address some of its issues. I suggest that the MAR sheds lights not only on narrative empathy but also on the role of non-propositionality RT.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Recherches actuelles sur le temps et l'aspect
    Si le temps occupe une place aussi centrale dans la discussion linguistique, et depuis si longtemps, c’est parce que ce sujet – avec ses sujets-frères que sont l’aspect, la modalité et l’évidentialité – est non seulement riche et complexe mais aussi profondément enraciné dans la langue, se manifestant à tous ses niveaux et dans une quantité importante de contextes de réflexion. Les articles recueillis dans ce volume se présentent à premier abord comme des études spécifiques sur des phénomènes précis, mais il s’avère rapidement que, de par sa nature, le sujet ‘temps’ ne peut pas être abordé de manière « isolée », puisqu'il parcourt la langue comme un système étendu, sans qu’on puisse en dessiner les limites avec clarté.
  • Publication
    Métadonnées seulement
    Beyond Meaning
    (Amsterdam - New York: John Benjamins, 2021)
    Ifantidou, Elly
    ;
    ;
    Wharton, Tim
    Despite the fact that they are often crucial to our understanding, the vague, ineffable elements of language use and communication have received much less attention from linguists than the more concrete, effable ones. This has left a range of important questions unanswered. How might we account for the communication of non-propositional phenomena such as moods, emotions and impressions? What type of cognitive response do these phenomena trigger, if not conceptual or propositional? Do creative metaphors and unknown words in second languages and other ‘pointers’ to ‘conceptual regions’ communicate concepts learned from language alone? How might the descriptive ineffability of interjections, free indirect speech etc. be accommodated within a theory of communication? What of those working on the aesthetics of artworks, music and literature? What can evolution tell us about ineffability? The papers in this volume address these fascinating questions head-on. They represent a range of different attempts to answer them and, in so doing, allow us to pose exciting new questions. The aim, to bring the ineffable firmly within the grasp of theoretical pragmatics.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Aspects of Tenses, Modality, and Evidentiality
    If there’s a domain in linguistics which complexity calls for ever further research, it’s clearly that of tense, aspect, modality and evidentiality, often referred to as ‘TAME’. The reason for which these domains of investigation have been connected so tightly as to deserve a common label is that their actual intertwining is so dense that one can hardly measure their effects purely individually, without regard to the other notions of the spectrum. On the other hand, despite their imbrications, tense, aspect, modality and evidentiality remain – needless to say – separate theoretical entities. The papers gathered in this volume cover a range of issues and a variety of methods that help delineate, each in its way, new perspectives on this broad domain.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    René de Saussure and the theory of word formation
    (Berlin: Language Science Press, 2018)
    Anderson, Stephen R.
    ;
    This volume presents two works elaborating a general theory of words and their struc- ture written by René de Saussure, younger brother of Ferdinand de Saussure. Although originating in René de Saussure’s concerns for the structure of Esperanto, these essays are clearly intended to articulate a general account of word formation in natural lan- guage. They appear here in the French original with facing English translations, accom- panied by some remarks on René de Saussure’s life and followed by essays on the Es- perantist background of his analysis (by Marc van Oostendorp), the contemporary rele- vance of his morphological theory (by Stephen Anderson), and the semantic theory of words underlying his analysis (by Louis de Saussure). These two works have remained essentially unknown to the community of scholars in general linguistics since their pub- lication in 1911 and 1919, respectively, although Esperantists have been aware of them. They develop in quite explicit form a theory of what would later be called morphemic analysis, based primarily on data from French (with some material from German and English, as well as occasional examples from other Indo-European languages). In its fun- damental aspect, René’s view of word formation differed significantly from that of his brother, who saw the structure of complex words as revealed not through their decom- position into smaller “atomic” units but rather in the relations between words, relations which could be presented in analogical form and which anticipate rule-based theories of morphological structure. The contrast between the two brothers’ views thus anticipates basic issues in current theorizing about word structure.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Deixis et anaphore
    (Londres: ISTE, 2018)
    Il est difficile d’identifier des concepts plus fondamentaux en philosophie du langage et en linguistique que ceux de deixis et anaphore. La deixis concerne les marqueurs linguistiques contextuels qui atteignent leur référent par le biais de la situation énonciative, comme « je », « tu », « celui-ci », « maintenant », « ici », etc. Les expressions anaphoriques atteignent leur référent par l’identification d’un antécédent déjà mentionné.Il s’agit de deux types d’opérateurs qui établissent en un système croisé, chacun à leur manière, un pont entre la phrase et le discours. Comment fonctionnent ces deux systèmes et quelles en sont les principales dimensions, voici les interrogations principales auxquelles cet ouvrage s’est donné pour tâche de répondre.Deixis et anaphore retrace l’émergence et l’histoire des notions de deixis et d’anaphore à travers l’histoire de la pensée occidentale en philosophie du langage et linguistique et les manières dont les approches contemporaines les envisagent.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Des mots et des couleurs
    (Paris: Hermann, 2017)
    Prenant le vocabulaire des couleurs comme fil rouge et parfois comme prétexte, cet essai à l’écriture libérée du jargon habituel des spécialistes invite à une réflexion contemporaine sur un ensemble de thèmes relatifs au langage, à la catégorisation du monde et aux ressorts complexes de la communication langagière. Laissant une place significative aux sciences cognitives tout en discutant les positions classiques sur la question de l’universalité, il aborde plusieurs lignes d’investigation dans un ensemble de domaines qui éclairent cette vaste problématique. Le caractère fondamentalement ineffable des termes de perception, comme des émotions, suscite en filigrane une interrogation plus profonde sur ce que nous sommes capables de partager grâce au langage et parfois malgré lui dans nos tentatives, quotidiennes ou même littéraires, de se faire écho les uns aux autres.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Verbal Communication
    (Berlin: De Gruyter, 2016)
    Rocci, Andrea
    ;
    Common sense tells us that verbal communication should be a central concern both for the study of communication and for the study of language. Language is the most pervasive means of communication in human societies, especially if we consider the huge gamut of communication phenomena where spoken and written language combines with other modalities, such as gestures or pictures. Most communication researchers have to deal with issues of language use in their work. Classic methods in communication research - from content analysis to interviews and questionnaires, not to mention the obvious cases of rhetorical analysis and discourse analysis - presuppose the understanding of the meaning of spontaneous or elicited verbal productions. Despite its pervasiveness, verbal communication does not currently define one cohesive and distinct subfield within the communication discipline. The Handbook of Verbal Communication seeks to address this gap. In doing so, it draws not only on the communication discipline, but also on the rich interdisciplinary research on language and communication that developed over the last fifty years as linguistics interacted with the social sciences and the cognitive sciences. The interaction of linguistic research with the social sciences has produced a plethora of approaches to the study of meanings in social context - from conversation analysis to critical discourse analysis, while cognitive research on verbal communication, carried out in cognitive pragmatics as well as in cognitive linguistics, has offered insights into the interaction between language, inference and persuasion and into cognitive processes such as framing or metaphorical mapping. The Handbook of Verbal Communication volume takes into account these two traditions selecting those issues and themes that are most relevant for communication scholars. It addresses background matters such as the evolution of human verbal communication and the relationship between verbal and non-verbal means of communication and offers a an extensive discussion of the explicit and implicit meanings of verbal messages, with a focus on emotive and figurative meanings. Conversation and fundamental types of discourse, such as argument and narrative, are presented in-depth, as is the key notion of discourse genre. The nature of writing systems as well as the interaction of spoken or written language with non-verbal modalities are devoted ample attention. Different contexts of language use are considered, from the mass media and the new media to the organizational contexts. Cultural and linguistic diversity is addressed, with a focus on phenomena such as multilingual communication and translation. A key feature of the volume is the coverage of verbal communication quality. Quality is examined both from a cognitive and from a social perspective. It covers topics that range from to the cognitive processes underlying deceptive communication to the methods that can be used to assess the quality of texts in an organizational context.