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- PublicationMétadonnées seulementMolecular biology of chloroplast biogenesis: gene expression, protein import and intraorganellar sorting(2001)
;Bauer, Jörg ;Hiltbrunner, AndreasThe chloroplast is the hallmark organelle of plants. It performs photosynthesis and is therefore required for photoautotrophic plant growth. The chloroplast is the most prominent member of a family of related organelles termed plastids which are ubiquitous in plant cells. Biogenesis of the chloroplast from undifferentiated proplastids is induced by light. The generally accepted endosymbiont hypothesis states that chloroplasts have arisen from an internalized cyanobacterial ancestor. Although chloroplasts have maintained remnants of the ancestral genome (plastome), the vast majority of the genes encoding chloroplast proteins have been transferred to the nucleus. This poses two major challenges to the plant cell during chloroplast biogenesis: First, light and developmental signals must be interpreted to coordinately express genetic information contained in two distinct compartments. This is to ensure supply and stoichiometry of abundant chloroplast components. Second, developing chloroplasts must efficiently import nuclear encoded and cytosolically synthesized proteins. A subset of proteins, including such encoded by the plastome, must further be sorted to the thylakoid compartments for assembly into the photosynthetic apparatus.
- PublicationAccès libreDual targeting of a mature plastoglobulin/fibrillin fusion protein to chloroplast plastoglobules and thylakoids in transplastomic tobacco plantsPlastoglobules (PG) are lipid droplets in chloroplasts and other plastid types having important functions in lipid metabolism. Plastoglobulins (PGL) also known as fibrillins (FBN) are evolutionary conserved proteins present at the PG surface but also to various extents at the thylakoid membrane. PGLs are thought to have structural functions in PG formation and maintenance. The targeting of an Arabidopsis PGL (PGL34) to PG required the full protein sequence with the exception of a short C- terminal stretch. This indicated that PGL targeting relies on correct folding rather than a discrete sequence. PGLs lack strongly hydrophic regions and may therefore extrinsically associate with PG and thylakoid membranes via interaction with hydrophilic headgroups of surface lipids. Here, we report on the expression of the Arabidopsis plastoglobulin of 35kD (PGL35 or FBN1a) expressed as a mature protein fused to HIVp24 (human immunodeficiency virus capsid particle p24) or HCV (hepatitis C virus core protein) in transplastomic tobacco. A PGL35–HIVp24 fusion targeted in part to plastoglobules but a larger proportion was recovered in the thylakoid fraction. The findings indicate that transplastomic PGL35–HIVp24 folded correctly after its synthesis inside the chloroplast and then dually targeted to plastoglobules as well as thylakoid membranes.
- PublicationMétadonnées seulementProtein transport in organelles: The Toc complex way of preprotein import(2009)
- PublicationMétadonnées seulementABC1K1/PGR6 kinase: a regulatory link between photosynthetic activity and chloroplast metabolism
- PublicationAccès libreBorder control: selectivity of chloroplast protein import and regulation at the TOC-complex
;Demarsy, Emilie ;Lakshmanan, Ashok MPlants have evolved complex and sophisticated molecular mechanisms to regulate their development and adapt to their surrounding environment. Particularly the development of their specific organelles, chloroplasts and other plastid-types, is finely tuned in accordance with the metabolic needs of the cell. The normal development and functioning of plastids require import of particular subsets of nuclear encoded proteins. Most preproteins contain a cleavable sequence at their N terminal (transit peptide) serving as a signal for targeting to the organelle and recognition by the translocation machinery TOC–TIC (translocon of outer membrane complex–translocon of inner membrane complex) spanning the dual membrane envelope. The plastid proteome needs constant remodeling in response to developmental and environmental factors. Therefore selective regulation of preprotein import plays a crucial role in plant development. In this review we describe the diversity of transit peptides and TOC receptor complexes, and summarize the current knowledge and potential directions for future research concerning regulation of the different Toc isoforms.
- PublicationMétadonnées seulementIsolation of components of the chloroplast protein import machinery(1994)
;Schnell, Danny ;Blobel, GunterComponents of the protein import machinery of the chloroplast were isolated by a procedure in which the import machinery was engaged in vitro with a tagged import substrate under conditions that yielded largely chloroplast envelope-bound import intermediates. Subsequent detergent solubilization of envelope membranes showed that six envelope polypeptides copurified specifically and, apparently, stoichiometrically with the import intermediates. Four of these polypeptides are components of the outer membrane import machinery and are associated with early import intermediates. Two of these polypeptides have been characterized. One is a homolog of the heat shock protein hsp70; the other one is a channel-protein candidate.
- PublicationAccès libreRole of plastoglobules in metabolite repair in the tocopherol redox cyclePlants are exposed to ever changing light environments and continuously forced to adapt. Excessive light intensity leads to the production of reactive oxygen species that can have deleterious effects on photosystems and thylakoid membranes. To limit damage, plants increase the production of membrane soluble antioxidants such as tocopherols. Here, untargeted lipidomics after high light treatment showed that among hundreds of lipid compounds alpha-tocopherol is the most strongly induced, underscoring its importance as an antioxidant. As part of the antioxidant mechanism, a-tocopherol undergoes a redox cycle involving oxidative opening of the chromanol ring. The only enzyme currently known to participate in the cycle is tocopherol cyclase (VTE1, At4g32770), that re-introduces the chromanol ring of a-tocopherol. By mutant analysis, we identified the NAD(P)H-dependent quinone oxidoreductase (NDC1, At5g08740) as a second enzyme implicated in this cycle. NDC1 presumably acts through the reduction of quinone intermediates preceding cyclization by VTE1. Exposure to high light also triggered far-ranging changes in prenylquinone composition that we dissect herein using null mutants and lines overexpressing the VTE1 and NDC1 enzymes.
- PublicationMétadonnées seulementMolecular characterization of tomato 3-dehydroquinate dehydratase-shikimate : NADP oxidoreductase(2001)
;Bischoff, Markus ;Schaller, Andreas ;Bieri, Fabian ; ;Amrhein, NikolausSchmid, JürgAnalysis of cDNAs encoding the bifunctional 3-dehydroquinate dehydratase-shikimate:NADP oxidoreductase (DHQase-SORase) from tomato (Lycopersicon escutlentum) revealed two classes of cDNAs that differed by 57 bp within the coding regions, but were otherwise identical. Comparison of these cDNA sequences with the sequence of the corresponding single gene unequivocally proved that the primary transcript is differentially spliced, potentially giving rise to two polypeptides that differ by 19 amino acids. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction revealed that the longer transcript constitutes at most 1% to 2% of DHQase-SORase transcripts. Expression of the respective polypeptides in Escherichia coli mutants lacking the DHQase or the SORase activity gave functional complementation only in case of the shorter polypeptide, indicating that skipping of a potential exon is a prerequisite for the production of an enzymatically active protein. The deduced amino acid sequence revealed that the DHQase-SORase is most likely synthesized as a precursor with a very short (13-amino acid) plastid-specific transit peptide. Like other genes encoding enzymes of the prechorismate pathway in tomato, this gene is elicitor-inducible. Tissue-specific expression resembles the patterns obtained for 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate synthase 2 and dehydroquinate synthase genes. This work completes our studies of the prechorismate pathway in that cDNAs for all seven enzymes (including isozymes) of the prechorismate pathway from tomato have now been characterized.
- PublicationMétadonnées seulementPreparation of multiprotein complexes from Arabidopsis chloroplasts using tandem affinity purification
- PublicationMétadonnées seulementThe chloroplast import receptor Toc90 partially restores the accumulation of Toc159 client proteins in the Arabidopsis thaliana ppi2 mutant(2011)
;Infanger, Sibylle ;Bischof, Sylvain ;Hiltbrunner, Andreas ;Agne, Birgit ;Baginsky, Sacha