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- PublicationAccès libreFunctional diversification and progressive routinization of a Multiword Expression in and for social interaction: A longitudinal L2 studyIn this article, we bring together conversation analysis and usage-based linguistics to investigate the second language (L2) developmental trajectory of a linguistic construction within the complex multimodal ecology of naturally occurring social interaction. We document how, over the course of 15 months, an L2 speaker's use of the French multiword expression comment on dit [how do you say] diversifies in both form and function. Two types of longitudinal change are observed: (a) The expression expands in its context of use: “Literal” uses are observed initially to request a candidate lexical item but are later also found in requests for confirmation, (b) these literal uses become proportionally less frequent, and the expression progressively routinizes as a marker-like element used for indexing cognitive search and floor-holding, and eventually also as a preface to self-correction. This routinization entails erosion in form and meaning, in concert with systematic change in co-occurring bodily-visual conduct, in particular gaze and gesture. By documenting change over time in the functional use and the multimodal delivery of the target construction, the findings evidence the longitudinal development of L2 grammar-for-interaction and showcase how linguistic and bodily resources may interface in L2 development. They also have important implications for language teaching and learning.
- PublicationAccès libreMultimodal word-search trajectories in L2 interaction: The use of gesture and how it changes over timeThis paper investigates the temporal dynamics of bodily and vocal conduct in the course of L2 word searches. Based on a longitudinal dataset of L2 French conversations, we first identify a recurrent multimodal search-trajectory involving specific simultaneous and successive assemblies of hand movements/holds with gaze, and (para)verbal displays of ongoing search. We interpret these Gestalt-like trajectories as part of methodic practices through which speakers both account for breaks in progressivity and display their search as “solitary”, preempting recipient’s entry into the turn-in-progress. We then put our findings into a longitudinal perspective, showing how features of these assemblies change over time in the developmental trajectories of L2 speakers.
- PublicationAccès libreThe Development of L2 Interactional Competence: A Multimodal Study of Complaining in French Interactions(New York: Routledge, 2022)This book presents unique insights into the development of L2 interactional competence through the lens of complaining, demonstrating how a closer study of complaining as a social activity can enhance our understanding of certain aspects of language learning with implications for future L2 research. The volume employs a multimodal, longitudinal conversation analytic (CA) approach in its analysis of data from video-recorded interactions of several elementary and advanced L2 speakers of French as they build their interactional competence, understood as the ability to accomplish social actions and activities in the L2 in context-dependent and recipient-designed ways. Skogmyr Marian calls attention to three key dimensions of complaining in these conversations – its structural organization, the interactional resources people use when they complain, and how speakers’ shared interactional histories and changing social relationships affect complaint practices. The volume underscores the fundamentally multimodal, socially situated, and co-constructed nature of L2 interactional competence and the socialization processes involved in its development, indicating paths for new work on interactional competence and L2 research more broadly. This book will be of appeal to students and scholars interested in second language acquisition, social interaction, and applied linguistics.
- PublicationAccès libreAssessing without words: Verbally incomplete utterances in complaints(2021-9-27)This study investigates the use of verbally incomplete utterances in French-language complaints about third parties or situations. In these cases, a speaker initiates a turn with verbal means but stops talking before reaching lexico-syntactic completion. The utterance becomes recognizable as an expression of negative stance or as a precise negative assessment by virtue of the linguistic formatting of the turn-initiation, its position within the larger interactional context, and the speaker’s accompanying bodily-visual displays and vocalizations. Data consist of video-recorded coffee-break conversations among first and second language speakers of French. Using multimodal Conversation Analysis, the analysis documents recurrent linguistic formats of the verbally incomplete utterances and examines the interactional deployment of the utterances in two distinct sequential contexts: (1) in the initiation of complaints, and (2) at the end of complaint tellings or reports. In the first of these, the action of leaving a turn verbally incomplete and expressing stance with bodily-visual means allows the speaker to prepare the grounds for the complaint by foreshadowing the negative valence of the upcoming talk. In the latter case, the verbally incomplete utterance and accompanying vocal and/or embodied conduct are deployed as a summary assessment or upshot of the complaint which shows, rather than merely describes, the complaint-worthiness of the situation. In both cases, the utterances work to enhance the chances for the speaker to obtain affiliative responses from coparticipants. While prior studies on verbally incomplete utterances have suggested that such utterances may be specifically suitable for subtly dealing with delicate actions, in this study the utterances are sometimes produced as part of multimodal ‘extreme-case expressions’ that convey negative stance in a high-grade manner. The findings contribute to a better understanding of interactional uses of verbally incomplete utterances and of the multimodal nature of negative assessments. The study thereby furthers our understanding of how grammar and the body interface as resources for the accomplishment of context-specific actions and the organization of social interaction.
- PublicationAccès libreInitiating a complaint: Change over time in French L2 speakers’ practices(2021-5-10)This study documents change over time and across proficiency levels in French second-language (L2) speakers’ practices for initiating complaints. Prior research has shown that speakers typically initiate complaints in a stepwise manner that indexes the contingent, moral, and delicate nature of the activity. Although elementary speakers in my data often launch complaint sequences in a straightforward way, they sometimes embodiedly foreshadow verbal expressions of negative stance or delay negative talk through brief positively valenced prefaces. More advanced speakers in part rely on the same initiation practices as elementary speakers. In addition, they recurrently use extensive prefatory work that accounts for and legitimizes the upcoming complaint, and they regularly initiate complaints jointly with coparticipants through a progressive escalation of negative stance expressions. I document interactional resources involved in this change and discuss the findings in terms of speakers’ development of L2 interactional competence. Data are in French with English translations.
- PublicationAccès libreMulti-unit turns that begin with a resaying of a prior speaker's turn(2021-5)
; ;Malabarba, TaianeWeatherall, AnnThis study examines the interactional workings of multi-unit turns that have an initial turn-constructional unit that re-says the immediately prior single-unit turn produced by another speaker. Based on cases in English, Portuguese, and French, our analysis shows that resayings do confirming and also 1) index the speaker's rights over the propositional component of the words, and 2) support the extension of the turn. In addition to confirming, resayings thus claim rights to what has been said and demonstrate an entitlement to say more. The resayings thereby have both a retrospective and prospective function, the latter being closely related to turn-taking management. Our findings contribute to the existing literature on other-repeats by considering what these do in a multi-unit turn environment.
- PublicationAccès libreWhat is in a greeting? The social meaning of greetings in Sweden-Swedish and Finland-Swedish service encounters(2020-10)
;Nilsson, Jenny ;Norrby, Catrin ;Bohman, Love ; ;Wide, CamillaLindström, JanThis study investigates the use of greetings in Sweden-Swedish and Finland-Swedish service encounters and the social meaning of different greeting forms. Situated within the framework of variational pragmatics, the study explores Swedish as a pluricentric language and investigates with interactional and statistical analyses to what extent the variable nation affect variation in greeting forms. While nation indeed is an important factor, the study also illustrates how social variables such as age, gender and participant roles as well as situational variables such as medium, region and venue impact the greeting choices participants make. Further, by applying an interactional analytical perspective the study contributes to the methodological development of variational pragmatics. This analysis shows how the sequential position of a greeting plays a part in the choice of greetings, and demonstrates that pragmatic variation emerges in interaction. The article suggests that greetings can be a resource for indexing the degree of social distance between interlocutors, and thereby manifest recurring cultural patterns.
- PublicationAccès libreCounselors’ Claims of Insufficient Knowledge in Academic Writing Consultations(2020-9-1)
; ;Henricson, SofieNelson, MarieContributing to academic literacies research, this study investigates how counselors at university writing centers in Sweden and Finland handle the micro-level management of knowledge in advice-giving. While writing counselors are experienced in academic writing, they are not necessarily familiar with students’ subject areas and may also lack access to other relevant information, such as specific writing instructions. Using Conversation Analysis, we examine how writing counselors address their lack of relevant knowledge through claims of insufficient knowledge (CIK). CIKs are typically used in assessment activities, to downgrade both positive and negative assessments, but sometimes also to upgrade positive assessments. Our findings demonstrate how the distribution of knowledge is negotiated in academic writing consultations and illustrate the epistemic complexity of this setting.
- PublicationAccès libreThe development of interactional competence in a second language: a multimodal analysis of complaining in french interactions(Neuchâtel, 2020)L’apprentissage d’une langue seconde (L2) est un processus extrêmement complexe. Pour pouvoir participer de manière efficace à des situations authentiques en L2, il ne suffit pas d’apprendre le vocabulaire, la grammaire et d’autres notions linguistiques. Il faut aussi développer une compétence d’interaction. Cette thèse porte sur le développement de la compétence d’interaction en français L2. En se basant sur l’Analyse Conversationnelle, l’étude examine de manière longitudinale comment les pratiques multimodales des locuteurs pour se plaindre de tiers absents ou d’un objet évoluent à travers le temps. Les données sont constituées d’enregistrements vidéo de petits groupes d’étudiants participant à un ‘cercle de conversation’ dans une université de Suisse romande. L’étude se focalise sur cinq participants de niveau élémentaire et intermédiaire/avancé en français, et suit leur implication dans des séquences de plaintes sur une durée entre trois et 19 mois. L’analyse comprend trois sous-études empiriques qui se concentrent sur les dimensions suivantes : (1) l’organisation structurelle des plaintes, (2) les ressources interactionnelles mobilisées dans les plaintes et (3) la façon dont les histoires interactionnelles partagées par les locuteurs et l’évolution de leurs relations sociales affectent les pratiques de plainte. Les résultats des trois sous-études contribuent à une meilleure compréhension d’une série de composantes de la compétence d’interaction en L2 et de leur développement longitudinal. Ils démontrent comment les locuteurs développent leur capacité à gérer la prise de parole, à coordonner et à co-construire avec autrui des séquences d’actions plus larges, et à introduire des sujets délicats. Ils montrent également comment les locuteurs utilisent des répertoires de ressources linguistiques de plus en plus variés à des fins interactionnelles et comment ils assemblent des conduites multisémiotiques (verbales, paraverbales, corporelles) en des ‘packages’ multimodaux pour l’action. Enfin, ils illustrent comment les locuteurs s’appuient sur leurs histoires interactionnelles partagées avec leurs coparticipants pour produire des actions sociales reconnaissables qui sont sensibles au contexte et au destinataire. Les résultats ont des conséquences importantes pour notre compréhension du développement de la compétence d’interaction en L2 et de l’apprentissage des L2 en général. Ils soulignent la nature fondamentalement multimodale, socialement située et co-construite de la compétence d’interaction et ils mettent en lumière le rôle des processus de socialisation dans le développement de cette compétence. Abstract Second language (L2) learning is an incredibly intricate endeavor. To be able to participate effectively in real-life situations in the L2, it is not enough to learn vocabulary, grammar, and other linguistic skills. Speakers also need to develop an interactional competence. This dissertation investigates the development of interactional competence in L2 French. Drawing on ethnomethodological Conversation Analysis, the study documents longitudinally how speakers’ multimodal practices for complaining about non-present third parties or state of affairs change over time. Data consist of video-recordings of small groups of students participating in a ‘conversation circle’ at a university in the French-speaking part of Switzerland. The study concentrates on five focal participants at elementary and upper-intermediate/advanced levels of French, and tracks their involvement in complaint sequences during three to 19 months. The analysis comprises three empirical sub-studies that examine three dimensions of complaining: (1) the structural organization of complaining, (2) the interactional resources people use in complaining, and (3) how speakers’ shared interactional histories and their evolving social relationships affect complaint practices. The results of the three sub-studies contribute to a better understanding of a range of features involved in the development of L2 interactional competence. They show how speakers develop their ability to manage conversational turn-taking, to coordinate and co-construct larger sequences of actions with others, and to introduce delicate talk. They also demonstrate how speakers use increasingly diverse repertoires of linguistic resources for interactional purposes and assemble multisemiotic (verbal, paraverbal, embodied) conduct into multimodal ‘packages’ for action. Finally, they illustrate how speakers draw on their shared interactional histories with their coparticipants to produce recognizable, context-sensitive, and recipient-designed social actions. The findings have important consequences for our understanding of the development of L2 interactional competence and of L2 learning more generally. They underline the fundamentally multimodal, socially situated, and co-constructed nature of interactional competence and shed light on the role of socialization processes in the development of such competence.
- PublicationMétadonnées seulementVi skrattar åt allt möjligt [We laugh at various things](Stockholm: Carlsson, 2019)