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- PublicationMétadonnées seulementThe role of indole and other shikimic acid derived maize volatiles in the attraction of two parasitic wasps(2006)
;D'Alessandro, Marco ; ;Triponez, YannAfter herbivore attack, plants release a plethora of different volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which results in odor blends that are attractive to predators and parasitoids of these herbivores. VOCs in the odor blends emitted by maize plants (Zea mays) infested by lepidopteran larvae are well characterized. They are derived from at least three different biochemical pathways, but the relative importance of each pathway for the production of VOCs that attract parasitic wasps is unknown. Here, we studied the importance of shikimic acid derived VOCs for the attraction of females of the parasitoids Cotesia marginiventris and Microplitis rufiventris. By incubating caterpillar-infested maize plants in glyphosate, an inhibitor of the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phospate (EPSP) synthase, we obtained induced odor blends with only minute amounts of shikimic acid derived VOCs. In olfactometer bioassays, the inhibited plants were as attractive to naive C. marginiventris females as control plants that released normal amounts of shikimic acid derived VOCs, whereas naive M. rufiventris females preferred inhibited plants to control plants. By adding back synthetic indole, the quantitatively most important shikimic acid derived VOC in induced maize odors, to inhibited plants, we showed that indole had no effect on the attraction of C. marginiventris and that M. rufiventris preferred blends without synthetic indole. Exposing C. marginiventris females either to odor blends of inhibited or control plants during oviposition experiences shifted their preference in subsequent olfactometer tests in favor of the experienced odor. Further learning experiments with synthetic indole showed that C. marginiventris can learn to respond to this compound, but that this does not affect its choices between natural induced blends with or without indole. We hypothesize that for naive wasps the attractiveness of an herbivore-induced odor blend is reduced due to masking by nonattractive compounds, and that during oviposition experiences in the presence of complex odor blends, parasitoids strongly associate some compounds, whereas others are largely ignored.
- PublicationMétadonnées seulement
- PublicationMétadonnées seulementA comparison of naive and conditioned responses of three generalist endoparasitoids of lepidopteran larvae to host-induced plant odours(2006)
;Tamo, Cristina ;Ricard, Ingrid ; ;Davison, Anthony CMany parasitic wasps that exploit herbivores as their hosts make use of herbivore-induced plant odours to locate their victims and these wasps often exhibit an ability to learn to associate specific plant-produced odours with the presence of hosts. This associative learning is expected to allow generalist parasitoids to focus on cues that are most reliably associated with current host presence, but evidence Supporting this hypothesis is ambiguous. Using a six-arm olfactometer we compared the responses of three generalist larval endoparasitoids. Cotesia inarginiventris (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), Microplitis rufiventris (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and Campoletis sonorensis (Hymenoptera: lchneunionidae). to the induced odours of three plant species: maize (Zea mays), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata). and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). We tested the responses of naive females as well as of females that were first conditioned by parasitising host larvae feeding on one of the plant species. Despite similarities in biology and host range the three wasp species responded entirely differently. Naive C. marginiventris and C. sonorensis chose equally among the induced odours of the three plants. whereas naivc M. rufiventris. which may have a somewhat more restricted host range, tended to prefer the odour of maize. After conditioning, most C. marginiventris females chose the odour of the plant species that they had experienced, but conditioned M. rufiventris showed an even stronger preference for maize odours. independently of the plant they had experienced. Cotesia sonorensis did not show any change in its preference after conditioning. We speculate that its extremely broad host range allows C. sonorensis females to use fixed responses to cues commonly associated with plants damaged by Lepidoptera. These results imply that different generalist parasitoids may employ different foraging strategies and that associative learning is not necessarily part of it.
- PublicationMétadonnées seulementA maize (E)-beta-caryophyllene synthase implicated in indirect defense responses against herbivores is not expressed in most American maize varieties(2008)
;Kollner, Tobias G ; ;Lenk, Claudia ; ; ;Gershenzon, JonathanDegenhardt, JoergThe sesquiterpene (E)-beta-caryophyllene is emitted by maize (Zea mays) leaves in response to attack by lepidopteran larvae like Spodoptera littoralis and released from roots after damage by larvae of the coleopteran Diabrotica virgifera virgifera. We identified a maize terpene synthase, Terpene Synthase 23 (TPS23), that produces (E)-beta-caryophyllene from farnesyl diphosphate. The expression of TPS23 is controlled at the transcript level and induced independently by D. v. virgifera damage in roots and S. littoralis damage in leaves. We demonstrate that (E)-beta-caryophyllene can attract natural enemies of both herbivores: entomopathogenic nematodes below ground and parasitic wasps, after an initial learning experience, above ground. The biochemical properties of TPS23 are similar to those of (E)-beta-caryophyllene synthases from dicotyledons but are the result of repeated evolution. The sequence of TPS23 is maintained by positive selection in maize and its closest wild relatives, teosinte (Zea sp) species. The gene encoding TPS23 is active in teosinte species and European maize lines, but decreased transcription in most North American lines resulted in the loss of (E)-beta-caryophyllene production. We argue that the (E)-beta-caryophyllene defense signal was lost during breeding of the North American lines and that its restoration might help to increase the resistance of these lines against agronomically important pests.
- PublicationMétadonnées seulementAttractiveness of constitutive and herbivore-induced sesquiterpene blends of maize to the parasitic wasp(2011)
;Fontana, A. ; ;Fantaye, C. A. ; ;Degenhardt, JörgGershenzon, JonathanPlant volatile compounds induced by herbivore attack have been demonstrated to provide a signal to herbivore enemies such as parasitic wasps that use these volatiles to locate their hosts. However, in addition to herbivore-induced volatiles, plants often release volatiles constitutively. We assessed the interaction between herbivore-induced and constitutively released volatiles of maize in the attraction of the wasp Cotesia marginiventris that parasitizes herbivorous lepidopteran larvae feeding on maize. Experiments were carried out with olfactometers in which the sources of volatiles were transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants overexpressing maize sesquiterpene synthases that produce blends of herbivore-induced or constitutive compounds. We found that the constitutive volatiles of maize terpene synthase 8 (TPS8) were attractive to C. marginiventris, just like the herbivore-induced volatiles of TPS10 studied earlier. A mixture of both the TPS8 and TPS10 volatile blends, however, was more effective in parasitoid attraction, indicating that constitutively released sesquiterpenes enhance the attraction of those induced by herbivores. While C. marginiventris did not distinguish among the volatiles of TPS8, TPS10, nor those of another maize sesquiterpene synthase (TPS5), when these blends were combined, their attractiveness to the wasp appeared to increase with the complexity of the blend.
- PublicationMétadonnées seulementThe Cry of the Corn (Der Hilfeschrei des Mais)
- PublicationAccès libreThe products of a single maize sesquiterpene synthase form a volatile defense signal that attracts natural enemies of maize herbivores(2006)
;Schnee, Christiane ;Köllner, Tobias G. ; ; ;Gershenzon, JonathanDegenhardt, JörgPlants can defend themselves against herbivores by attracting natural enemies of the herbivores. The cues for attraction are often complex mixtures of herbivore-induced plant volatiles, making it difficult to demonstrate the role of specific compounds. After herbivory by lepidopteran larvae, maize releases a mixture of volatiles that is highly attractive to females of various parasitic wasp species. We identified the terpene synthase TPS10 that forms (E)-β-farnesene, (E)-α-bergamotene, and other herbivory-induced sesquiterpene hydrocarbons from the substrate farnesyl diphosphate. The corresponding gene is expressed in response to herbivore attack and is regulated at the transcript level. Overexpression of tps10 in Arabidopsis thaliana resulted in plants emitting high quantities of TPS10 sesquiterpene products identical to those released by maize. Using these transgenic Arabidopsis plants as odor sources in olfactometer assays showed that females of the parasitoid Cotesia marginiventris learn to exploit the TPS10 sesquiterpenes to locate their lepidopteran hosts after prior exposure to these volatiles in association with hosts. This dissection of the herbivore-induced volatile blend demonstrates that a single gene such as tps10 can be sufficient to mediate the indirect defense of maize against herbivore attack.
- PublicationAccès librePriming by airborne signals boosts direct and indirect resistance in maize(2007)
;Ton, Jurriaan ;D'Alessandro, Marco ;Jourdie, Violaine ;Jakab, Gabor ;Karlen, Danielle ; ;Plants counteract attack by herbivorous insects using a variety of inducible defence mechanisms. The production of toxic proteins and metabolites that instantly affect the herbivore's development are examples of direct induced defence. In addition, plants may release mixtures of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that indirectly protect the plant by attracting natural enemies of the herbivore. Recent studies suggest that these VOCs can also prime nearby plants for enhanced induction of defence upon future insect attack. However, evidence that this defence priming causes reduced vulnerability to insects is sparse. Here we present molecular, chemical and behavioural evidence that VOC-induced priming leads to improved direct and indirect resistance in maize. A differential hybridization screen for inducible genes upon attack by Spodoptera littoralis caterpillars identified 10 defence-related genes that are responsive to wounding, jasmonic acid (JA), or caterpillar regurgitant. Exposure to VOCs from caterpillar-infested plants did not activate these genes directly, but primed a subset of them for earlier and/or stronger induction upon subsequent defence elicitation. This priming for defence-related gene expression correlated with reduced caterpillar feeding and development. Furthermore, exposure to caterpillar-induced VOCs primed for enhanced emissions of aromatic and terpenoid compounds. At the peak of this VOC emission, primed plants were significantly more attractive to parasitic Cotesia marginiventris wasps. This study shows that VOC-induced priming targets a specific subset of JA-inducible genes, and links these responses at the molecular level to enhanced levels of direct and indirect resistance against insect attack.
- PublicationAccès libreAttractiveness of Constitutive and Herbivore-Induced Sesquiterpene Blends of Maize to the Parasitic Wasp Cotesia marginiventris (Cresson)(2011)
;Fontana, Anna ; ;Fantaye, Chalie A. ; ;Degenhardt, JörgGershenzon, JonathanPlant volatile compounds induced by herbivore attack have been demonstrated to provide a signal to herbivore enemies such as parasitic wasps that use these volatiles to locate their hosts. However, in addition to herbivore-induced volatiles, plants often release volatiles constitutively. We assessed the interaction between herbivore-induced and constitutively released volatiles of maize in the attraction of the wasp Cotesia marginiventris that parasitizes herbivorous lepidopteran larvae feeding on maize. Experiments were carried out with olfactometers in which the sources of volatiles were transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants overexpressing maize sesquiterpene synthases that produce blends of herbivore-induced or constitutive compounds. We found that the constitutive volatiles of maize terpene synthase 8 (TPS8) were attractive to C. marginiventris, just like the herbivore-induced volatiles of TPS10 studied earlier. A mixture of both the TPS8 and TPS10 volatile blends, however, was more effective in parasitoid attraction, indicating that constitutively released sesquiterpenes enhance the attraction of those induced by herbivores. While C. marginiventris did not distinguish among the volatiles of TPS8, TPS10, nor those of another maize sesquiterpene synthase (TPS5), when these blends were combined, their attractiveness to the wasp appeared to increase with the complexity of the blend.
- PublicationAccès libreSite-specific field resistance of grapevine to Plasmopara viticola correlates to altered gene expression and was not modulated by the application of organic amendments(2011)
;Thuerig, Barbara ;Slaughter, Ana R. ;Marouf, Elaheh ; ;Tamm, LuciusThe influence of site on resistance of grapevine (cv. Chasselas) to Plasmopara viticola was evaluated. Grapevine leaves from three vineyards in the region of Lake Neuchâtel (Switzerland) were tested for their susceptibility to P. viticola in the lab in five successive years (2004–2008), and the expression levels of four selected defence-related genes (Glucanase, Lipoxygenase 9, 9-cis epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase, Stilbene synthase) were studied in 1 year. In all 5 years of examination, differences between sites were substantial. In four out of 5 years, plants from site Hauvernier were much less susceptible to P. viticola than plants from site Auvernier. In another year, differences were less pronounced but still significant for one leaf age. Susceptibility of plants from a third site (Concise) varied from year to year. Differences in the genetic background were excluded by microsatellite analysis. Differences in susceptibility were mirrored in the constitutive expression pattern of four defence-related genes, with samples from the Hauterive site clearly separated from samples of the other two sites in redundancy analysis. Furthermore, it was evaluated whether site-specific resistance can be modulated by agronomic practices such as the application of organic amendments. In two commercial vineyards (cv. Pinot noir), soils had either not (control) or yearly (compost) been amended with a compost for the last 9 years. Leaves from plants grown in any of the two treatments did not differ in their susceptibility to P. viticola in both years of examination. Additionally, under controlled conditions, none of 19 different composts amended to the substrate of grapevine seedlings or cuttings affected their susceptibility to P. viticola, but 8 out of 19 composts reduced severity in the control bioassay Arabidopsis thaliana—Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis, indicating that a modulation of site-specific susceptibility of grapevine plants by organic amendments is at the very least, difficult.