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- PublicationAccès libreOne Alga to Rule them All: Unrelated Mixotrophic Testate Amoebae (Amoebozoa, Rhizaria and Stramenopiles) Share the Same Symbiont (Trebouxiophyceae)Endosymbiosis is a central and much studied process in the evolution of eukaryotes. While plastid evolution in eukaryotic algae has been extensively studied, much less is known about the evolution of mixotrophy in amoeboid protists, which has been found in three of the five super groups of Eukaryotes. We identified the green endosymbionts in four obligate mixotrophic testate amoeba species belonging to three major eukaryotic clades, Hyalosphenia papilio and Heleopera sphagni (Amoebozoa: Arcellinida), Placocista spinosa (Rhizaria: Euglyphida), and Archerella flavum (Stramenopiles: Labyrinthulomycetes) based on rbcL (ribulose-1,5-diphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase large subunit) gene sequences. We further investigated whether there were different phylotypes of algal endosymbionts within single H. papilio cells and the degree of host-symbiont specificity by amplifying two genes: COI (mitochondrial cytochrome oxydase subunit 1) from the testate amoeba host, and rbcL from the endosymbiont. Results show that all studied endosymbionts belong to genus Chlorella sensu stricto, closely related to Paramecium bursaria Chlorella symbionts, some lichen symbionts and also several free-living algae. Most rbcL gene sequences derived from symbionts from all testate amoeba species were almost identical (at most 3 silent nucleotides difference out of 780 bp) and were assigned to a new Trebouxiophyceae taxon we named TACS (Testate Amoeba Chlorella Symbionts). This “one alga fits all mixotrophic testate amoeba” pattern suggests that photosynthetic symbionts have pre-adaptations to endosymbiosis and colonise diverse hosts from a free-living stage.
- PublicationAccès libreDispersal limitations and historical factors determine the biogeography of specialized terrestrial protists
; ; ;Payne, Richard J ;Blandenier, Quentin ;Duckert, Clément ;Fernández, Leonardo D ; ;Hernández, Cristián E ;Granath, Gustaf ;Rydin, Håkan ;Bragazza, Luca ;Koronatova, Natalia G ;Goia, Irina ;Harris, Lorna I ;Kajukało, Katarzyna ; ;Lamentowicz, Mariusz ;Kosykh, Natalia P ;Vellak, KaiRecent studies show that soil eukaryotic diversity is immense and dominated by micro‐organisms. However, it is unclear to what extent the processes that shape the distribution of diversity in plants and animals also apply to micro‐organisms. Major diversification events in multicellular organisms have often been attributed to long‐term climatic and geological processes, but the impact of such processes on protist diversity has received much less attention as their distribution has often been believed to be largely cosmopolitan. Here, we quantified phylogeographical patterns in Hyalosphenia papilio, a large testate amoeba restricted to Holarctic Sphagnum‐dominated peatlands, to test if the current distribution of its genetic diversity can be explained by historical factors or by the current distribution of suitable habitats. Phylogenetic diversity was higher in Western North America, corresponding to the inferred geographical origin of the H. papilio complex, and was lower in Eurasia despite extensive suitable habitats. These results suggest that patterns of phylogenetic diversity and distribution can be explained by the history of Holarctic Sphagnum peatland range expansions and contractions in response to Quaternary glaciations that promoted cladogenetic range evolution, rather than the contemporary distribution of suitable habitats. Species distributions were positively correlated with climatic niche breadth, suggesting that climatic tolerance is key to dispersal ability in H. papilio. This implies that, at least for large and specialized terrestrial micro‐organisms, propagule dispersal is slow enough that historical processes may contribute to their diversification and phylogeographical patterns and may partly explain their very high overall diversity.