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- PublicationAccès libre
- PublicationAccès librePaper / InkThis chapter combines close textual analysis with analytical bibliography to explore what paper and ink—the primary materials used to produce Shakespeare’s poems and plays in both manuscript and print—can teach us about Shakespeare’s texts. Paper and ink often take on metaphorical significance in Shakespeare’s works. For example, Othello describes Desdemona as “fair paper,” asking if such a “goodly book” was “made to write ‘whore’ upon.” Similarly, Leontes of The Winter’s Tale deems Florizel’s mother faithful because she accurately “print[ed]” his “Royal father off” when she conceived him, thus punning on the paper size, “Royal,” whilst alluding to commonplace links between printing and parenting. At the heart of both examples are concerns over honesty, legitimacy and reliable copying. It is perhaps ironic, then, that in recent years paper and ink have enabled researchers to expose seemingly “goodly,” legitimate print editions of Shakespeare’s texts as piracies and forgeries. The chapter will approach the relationship between paper, ink, and the Shakespearean text by adhering to textual allusions to paper and ink within his plays and poems; to traces of ink accidentally transferred between the paper of Shakespeare books once bound together; and to examples where the dates of Shakespeare editions are contradicted by watermarks hidden within the paper onto which they were printed. As I intend to demonstrate, these forms of invisible writing, these intersections of paper and ink, have the potential to revolutionize our understanding of the material forms in which Shakespeare’s texts first circulated.
- PublicationAccès libreRepackaging Milton for the Late Seventeenth-Century Book Trade Jacob Tonson, Paradise Lost, and John Dryden's The State of Innocence(Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2021)This chapter focuses on the magisterial 1688 folio edition of Paradise Lost, published by Jacob Tonson and Richard Bentley, exploring the possible reasons why these men chose to publish Milton at this time, as well as the impact the edition had both on Milton’s authorial afterlife and on their careers as stationers. The chapter places the 1688 Paradise Lost folio in the wider context of Tonson’s career, including his involvement in pirate publication schemes and his status (from 1678) as Dryden’s publisher, to argue that the 1688 edition of Paradise Lost, one of the most profound turning points in Milton’s authorial afterlife, had less to do with the political context of 1688 and the perceived vendibility of the poem and more to do with Tonson’s own ambitions and frustrations as a stationer.
- PublicationAccès libreAuthorship and Alteration: Shakespeare on the Exclusion Crisis Stage and Page, 1678-1682(Narr: Tübingen, 2011)
; ;Erne, LukasBolens, GuillemetteTen radically altered versions of Shakespeare’s plays appeared on stage between 1678 and 1682, partly in response to what is known as the Exclusion Crisis. The plays differ from earlier Shakespeare alterations in a number of important ways and mark the most intense period of Shake- speare rewriting since the playwright’s death. By separately considering the two media for which the plays were designed, the stage and the page, and by exploring the way Shakespeare as author-source was presented in the paratextual material accompanying the plays onto the stage and the page respectively, this essay suggests that reverence for Shakespeare and claims of textual ownership varied according to medium, thus offering conflicting views of Shakespeare to late seventeenth- century audiences and readers of playbooks. These conflicting views, I contend, are intimately linked to unequal levels of stage and page censorship during, and as a direct result of, the Exclusion Crisis. The essay offers a case for seeing the Exclusion Crisis as one of the most significant points in Shakespeare’s authorial afterlife.
- PublicationAccès libreShakespeare in the Wake of the Exclusion Crisis, 1683-1700Shakespeare's rise to prominence was by no means inevitable. While he was popular in his lifetime, the number of new editions and revivals of his plays declined over the following decades. Emma Depledge uses the methodologies of book and theatre history to provide a re-assessment of the reputation and dissemination of Shakespeare during the Interregnum and Restoration. She demonstrates the crucial role of the Exclusion Crisis (1678–1682), a political crisis over the royal succession, as a foundational moment in Shakespeare's canonisation. The period saw a sudden surge of theatrical alterations and a significantly increased rate of new editions and stage revivals. In the wake of the Exclusion Crisis, Shakespeare's plays were made available on a scale not witnessed since the early seventeenth century, thus reversing what might otherwise have been a permanent disappearance of his drama from canonical familiarity and firmly establishing Shakespeare's work in the national cultural imagination.
- PublicationAccès libreThe Politics of Rape in Nahum Tate's The History of King Lear, 1681(Washington DC: Rowman and Littlefield Publishing Group, 2014)
; ;Höfele, Andreas ;Dobson, Michael ;Procházka, MartinScolnicov, Hanna
- PublicationAccès libreShakespeare's Rise to Cultural Prominence: Politics, Print, Alteration, 1642-1700Shakespeare's rise to prominence was by no means inevitable. While he was popular in his lifetime, the number of new editions and revivals of his plays declined over the following decades. Emma Depledge uses the methodologies of book and theatre history to provide a re-assessment of the reputation and dissemination of Shakespeare during the Interregnum and Restoration. She demonstrates the crucial role of the Exclusion Crisis (1678–1682), a political crisis over the royal succession, as a foundational moment in Shakespeare's canonisation. The period saw a sudden surge of theatrical alterations and a significantly increased rate of new editions and stage revivals. In the wake of the Exclusion Crisis, Shakespeare's plays were made available on a scale not witnessed since the early seventeenth century, thus reversing what might otherwise have been a permanent disappearance of his drama from canonical familiarity and firmly establishing Shakespeare's work in the national cultural imagination.
- PublicationAccès libreResourcesThis section offers a comprehensive introduction to the resources available to students and scholars wishing to conduct research into Shakespeare and textual studies. It begins with an overview of major libraries and research centres with noteworthy Shakespeare collections, highlighting particularly rare items, courses offered, and fellowships provided by these institutions. An annotated list of courses offered at schools of book history, textual studies, and bibliography is also included, along with current course fees, and scholarships to cover fees, as are details of online ‘teach yourself’ courses in topics ranging from paleography to paper making. This is followed by an account of the eligibility requirements, upper funding limits, and stated aims of major grants and funding bodies that support work on Shakespeare and textual studies in Europe and the English-speaking world. The section ends with an account of different professional and academic associations promoting work on Shakespeare and textual studies, current membership costs and requirements, and the timing and format of the events they sponsor. In sum, this section aims to equip interested parties with knowledge of where, when, and how they can become more involved in the dynamic field of Shakespeare and textual studies
- PublicationAccès libreShakespeare alterations of the exclusion crisis, 1678-1682: politics, rape, and authorship(Geneva, 2012)This thesis explores Shakespeare's Restoration afterlife, claiming that a succession dispute known as the Exclusion Crisis (1678-1682) helped to rescue his plays from obscurity. In addition to exploring what the Crisis can tell us about Shakespeare's authorial afterlife the thesis contends that the ten Shakespeare alterations produced between 1678 and 1682 provide insights not only into the politics of the period, but more specifically into the problematic implications of the ‘rape rhetoric' circulating in the late 1670s and early 1680s.
- PublicationAccès libre"False Dating: The Case of the “1676” Hamlet Quartos,"(2018-6-1)Two quarto editions of Hamlet bear the date 1676.1 These are Wing S2950 and S2951, known as Q6 and Q7.2 The imprints to both editions state that Andrew Clark printed them for John Martyn and Henry Herringman. Thus far, the existence of two “1676” Hamlets has (understandably) led scholars to believe that Shakespeare’s play was relatively popular at the time, with two editions within twelve months suggesting that the first edition sold out within a year. This essay builds on W. W. Greg’s hunch concerning false dating and uses paper evidence to demonstrate that S2951 in fact dates from 1683-84, approximately eight years after its purported date.3 I suggest that Richard Bentley probably financed the edition with the false date in collaboration with Jacob Tonson and the printer Robert Everingham, and offer a hypothesis as to why these men published Hamlet with a false date and imprint in 1683-84.