Voici les éléments 1 - 4 sur 4
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Internationalism and lake-dwelling research after the Second World War
    (Oxford: Archaeopress, 2016)
    Summary After the Second World War some Swiss prehistorians tried to reposition their discipline in the field of science, using lake-dwelling research as a showcase. This paper examines how this research subject developed at the turn of the 1950s, when internationalism in science emerged as a new virtue in post-war Europe. Key words: Internationalism, lake-dwelling research, history of science, Switzerland Résumé Après la Seconde guerre mondiale, quelques préhistoriens suisses ont cherché à repositionner leur discipline dans le champ scientifique suisse en utilisant la recherche lacustre comme une vitrine. Cet article examine comment ces recherches se sont développées autour des années 1950, un moment charnière où l’internationalisme scientifique émerge comme une nouvelle vertu dans l’Europe d’après-guerre.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Entre laboratoire et terrain : physiciens, chimistes et archéologues face au radiocarbone
    (2016-12-30)
    Résumé : Contrairement à ce que suppose le sens commun, les progrès (méthodologiques) en sciences ne sont pas nécessairement les conséquences directes des innovations techniques. L’introduction de la datation par le radiocarbone (ou 14C) en archéologie n’échappe pas à ce constat. Annoncée comme une méthode révolutionnaire dans les années 1950, cet outil n’a pourtant eu qu’un impact très limité sur le développement de l’archéologie européenne jusque dans les années 1980. En tenant compte des conditions spécifiques de la production de la connaissance en archéologie d’une part et, d’autre part, dans le cadre des sciences de laboratoire, cet article vise à éclairer les modalités concrètes des collaborations étroites qui se sont mises en place entre archéologues, physiciens et chimistes nucléaires autour de la mise au point de la datation par le radiocarbone. Summary: Contrary to a common assumption, (methodological) improvements in science are not necessarily the direct consequences of technical innovations. The introduction of radiocarbon dating (or 14C) in archaeology confirms this assessment. Heralded as a revolutionary method around the 1950s, its impact on the development of European archaeology remained however very limited before the 1980s. Considering the specific conditions of science production in archaeology and in the field of laboratory sciences, this article aims at clarifying the concrete modalities of the close collaborations, which were initiated between archaeologists, and physicists and nuclear chemists in the context of the development of radiocarbon dating.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    History of Archaeology : International Perspectives
    (Oxford: Archaeopress, 2016) ;
    Díaz-Andreu, Margarita
    ;
    Djindjian, François
    ;
    Fernández, Victor M.
    ;
    Guidi, Alessandro
    ;
    The present volume gathers the communications of the three sessions organized under the auspices of the Commission ‘History of Archaeology’ at the XVII UISPP World Congress, Burgos 2014. The first part deals precisely with ‘International relations in the history of archaeology’. The eleven contributions tackle a particularly productive topic in the field today. In actual fact, this seminal research field currently echoes in a way the strong trend of scholarship about the influence of nationalism on the discipline, which since the end of the 1980s, has greatly contributed to the takeoff and overall recognition of the history of archaeology. The second part, entitled ‘The Revolution of the Sixties in prehistory and protohistory’, is the outcome of a partnership with the Commission ‘Archaeological Methods and Theory’. The seven contributions strive to document and analyse a recent past, which is still often burdened with the weight of teleological and presentist appraisals. The inclusion in this volume of this session significantly dedicated to the genealogy of schools of thought and to the study of complex methodological and technical issues illustrates the editors’ commitment to tackling historical issues as well, which are closely linked to current theoretical debates within archaeology. Such is also the aim of the third part, which addresses ‘Lobbying for Archaeology’. As shown by the five contributions of this session, archaeology has not only been instrumentalised by political powers and ideological interests. It has also found fruitful alliances with economic agents or bodies, where mutual advantages were gained on practical, technical bases. This volume suggests a reflexive, critical approach to these various forms of lobbying should ensure a useful awareness regarding the structural problems archaeology faces today, regarding its funding methods.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Radiocarbon and Archaeology : an Innovative Alliance in the post-WWII Scientific Field
    (Oxford: Archaeopress, 2016)
    Summary This paper evaluates institutional and political motives that led to the collaboration between archaeology and physics in the framework of the implementation of a 14C dating laboratory in Berne during the 1950s. The innovative dimension of the method, the powerful position of nuclear physics in the scientific field and the pluridisciplinary dimension of the partnership looked very attractive for prehistorians. At the same time, 14C dating offered interesting perspectives for physicists too. As an offshoot of nuclear research undertaken in the framework of the “military industrial complex” during WWII, 14C was perfectly aligned with the agenda of the politics of science regarding the new pacific developments of nuclear research after 1945. Keywords: radiocarbon dating, pluridisciplinarity, scientific field, Cold War. Résumé Cette contribution évalue les motifs institutionnels et politiques qui ont conduit archéologues et physiciens à collaborer dans le cadre de la mise en place d’un laboratoire de datation 14C à Berne, dans le courant des années 1950. Le caractère innovant de la méthode, la position dominante de la physique nucléaire dans le champ scientifique, de même que la dimension pluridisciplinaire de cette collaboration constituaient autant d’éléments attractifs pour les préhistoriens. Parallèlement à cela, la datation par la méthode du 14C offrait également de nouvelles perspectives aux physiciens et chimistes spécialisés dans le domaine nucléaire. A cela s’ajoute que le développement de la méthode du 14C – en tant que retombée de la recherche scientifique intégrée au “complexe militaro-industriel” durant la Seconde Guerre mondiale – s’inscrit parfaitement dans les agendas des politiques scientifiques qui cherchent, après 1945, à promouvoir de nouvelles applications pacifiques dans le domaine du nucléaire.