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- PublicationMétadonnées seulementHolons: towards a systematic approach to composing systems of systemsThe world’s computing infrastructure is increasingly differ- entiating into self-contained distributed systems with vari- ous purposes and capabilities (e.g. IoT installations, clouds, VANETs, WSNs, CDNs, . . . ). Furthermore, such systems are increasingly being composed to generate systems of sys- tems that offer value-added functionality. Today, however, system of systems composition is typically ad-hoc and fragile. It requires developers to possess an intimate knowledge of system internals and low-level interactions between their components. In this paper, we outline a vision and set up a research agenda towards the generalised programmatic construction of distributed systems as compositions of other distributed systems. Our vision, in which we refer uniformly to systems and to compositions of systems as holons, employs code generation techniques and uses common abstractions, operations and mechanisms at all system levels to support uniform system of systems composition. We believe our holon approach could facilitate a step change in the convenience and correctness with which systems of systems can be built, and open unprecedented opportunities for the emergence of new and previously-unenvisaged distributed system deploy- ments, analogous perhaps to the impact the mashup culture has had on the way we now build web applications.
- PublicationMétadonnées seulementEvaluating the Cost and Robustness of Self-organizing Distributed Hash TablesSelf-organizing construction principles are a natural fit for large-scale distributed system in unpredictable deployment environments. These principles allow a system to systematically converge to a global state by means of simple, uncoordinated actions by individual peers. Indexing services based on the distributed hash table (DHT) abstraction have been established as a solid foundation for large-scale distributed applications. For most DHTs, the creation and maintenance of the overlay structure relies on the exploration and update of an already stabilized structure. We evaluate in this paper the practical interest of self-organizing principles, and in particular gossip-based overlay construction protocols, to bootstrap and maintain various DHT implementations. Based on the seminal work on T-Chord, a self-organizing version of Chord using the T-Man overlay construction service, we contribute three additional self-organizing DHTs: T-Pastry, T-Kademlia and T-Kelips. We conduct an experimental evaluation of the cost and performance of each of these designs using a prototype implementation. Our conclusion is that, while providing equivalent performance in a stabilized system, self-organizing DHTs are able to sustain and recover from higher level of churn than their explicitly-created counterparts, and should therefore be considered as a method of choice for deploying robust indexing layers in adverse environments.