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- PublicationMétadonnées seulementThe role of the bacterial community in the nutritional ecology of the bulb mite Rhizoglyphus robini (Acari: Astigmata: Acaridae)(2013)
;Zindel, Renate ;Ofek, M. ;Minz, D. ;Palevsky, E. ;Zchori-Fein, E.The biology of many arthropods can only be understood when their associated microbiome is considered. The nutritional requirements of the bulb mite Rhizoglyphus robini Claparede (Acari: Astigmata: Acaridae) in the laboratory have been shown to be very easily satisfied, and in the field the mites prefer fungus-infected over uninfected plants. To test whether symbiotic bacteria facilitate the survival of R. robini on a temporarily nutritionally unbalanced diet, we investigated the composition of its microbiome. Using 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragments, 3 genera were found to dominate the bacterial community: Myroides (41.4%), Serratia (11.4%), and Alcaligenes (4.5%); the latter 2 are known to include chitinase-producing species. Laboratory experiments demonstrated that mite fecundity is significantly higher (2 times) on fungus than on controls (sterilized potato dextrose agar and filter paper). Also, when mite homogenate was applied to a chitin layer, the halo produced through degradation was clearly visible, while the saline control did not produce a halo. We thus concluded that R. robini utilizes fungal chitin, at least to a certain extent, as a food source with the help of its associated bacteria. This information supports the general concept of multigenome organisms and the involvement of bacteria in the mite's nutritional ecology.-Zindel, R., Ofek, M., Minz, D., Palevsky, E., Zchori-Fein, E., Aebi, A. The role of the bacterial community in the nutritional ecology of the bulb mite Rhizoglyphus robini (Acari: Astigmata: Acaridae). FASEB J. 27, 1488-1497 (2013). www.fasebj.org
- PublicationAccès libreHorismenus species (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) in a bruchid beetle parasitoid guild, including the description of a new speciesFour species of Horismenus (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) associated with Acanthoscelides spp.(Coleoptera: Bruchidae), three of which are also associated with Phaseolus spp., are treated. One of the species, H. butcheri, is described as new and the remaining three species are redescribed. Allfour species are diagnosed in a key. A lectotype is designated for Holcopelte productus Ashmead.
- PublicationAccès libreEvolution and diversity of Rickettsia bacteria
;Weinert, Lucy A ;Werren, John H ; ;Stone, Graham NJiggins, Francis MBackground: Rickettsia are intracellular symbionts of eukaryotes that are best known for infecting and causing serious diseases in humans and other mammals. All known vertebrate-associated Rickettsia are vectored by arthropods as part of their life-cycle, and many other Rickettsia are found exclusively in arthropods with no known secondary host. However, little is known about the biology of these latter strains. Here, we have identified 20 new strains of Rickettsia from arthropods, and constructed a multi-gene phylogeny of the entire genus which includes these new strains.
Results: We show that Rickettsia are primarily arthropod-associated bacteria, and identify several novel groups within the genus. Rickettsia do not co-speciate with their hosts but host shifts most often occur between related arthropods. Rickettsia have evolved adaptations including transmission through vertebrates and killing males in some arthropod hosts. We uncovered one case of horizontal gene transfer among Rickettsia, where a strain is a chimera from two distantly related groups, but multi-gene analysis indicates that different parts of the genome tend to share the same phylogeny.
Conclusion: Approximately 150 million years ago, Rickettsia split into two main clades, one of which primarily infects arthropods, and the other infects a diverse range of protists, other eukaryotes and arthropods. There was then a rapid radiation about 50 million years ago, which coincided with the evolution of life history adaptations in a few branches of the phylogeny. Even though Rickettsia are thought to be primarily transmitted vertically, host associations are short lived with frequent switching to new host lineages. Recombination throughout the genus is generally uncommon, although there is evidence of horizontal gene transfer. A better understanding of the evolution of Rickettsia will help in the future to elucidate the mechanisms of pathogenicity, transmission and virulence.
- PublicationAccès libreNative and introduced parasitoids attacking the invasive chestnut gall wasp Dryocosmus kuriphilus
; ;Schönrogge, K ;Melika, G ;Quacchia, A ;Alma, AStone, G. NThe globally invasive chestnut gall wasp Dryocosmus kuriphilus was recently reported in Italy and threatens European chestnut orchards and native forests. Of Chinese origin, this species has invaded Japan, Korea, the USA, Nepal and Europe and in each region it has been attacked by parasitoids exploiting oak gall wasps. Classical biological control using the parasitoid Torymus sinensis (Hymenoptera: Torymidae) successfully reduced infestation in Japan. Subsequent work in Japan and Korea showed this parasitoid to represent a poorly understood and biologically diverse species complex. Following its success in Japan, T. sinensis was released in Italy in 2005. A growing appreciation of the taxonomic and ecological complexity of the T. sinensis complex in Japan and Korea has stimulated ongoing DNA-based work on relationships and interbreeding of species in this group. Oak cynipid parasitoids provide potential for native augmentative or conservation biological control of D. kuriphilus in Europe. Exploitation of this potential requires improved understanding of the taxonomy of these parasitoids, particularly of morphologically highly conserved lineages such as Eurytoma and Eupelmus in which recognised species may contain many cryptic lineages. There is a growing need for a molecular survey of the communities centered on chestnut and oak gall wasps to: (1) ascertain the identity of T. sinensis lineages released in Italy (2) track the dispersal of T. sinensis in the native community, either in its original form or as hybrids with native species (3) identify possible biological control agents in the native parasitoid community.
- PublicationAccès libreLongitudinal range expansion and cryptic eastern species in the western Palaearctic oak gallwasp, Andricus coriarius(2007)
;Challis, Richard J ;Mutun, Serap ;Nieves-Aldrey, Jose-Luis ;Preuss, Sonja ;Rokas, Antonis ; ;Sadeghi, Ebrahim ;Tavakoli, MajidStone, Graham NThe oak gallwasp Andricus coriarius is distributed across the Western Palaearctic from Morocco to Iran. It belongs to a clade of host-alternating Andricus species that requires host oaks in two sections of Quercus subgenus Quercus to complete its lifecycle, a requirement that has restricted the historic distribution and dispersal of members of this clade. Here we present nuclear and mitochondrial sequence evidence from the entire geographic range of A. coriarius to investigate the genetic legacy of longitudinal range expansion. We show A. coriarius as currently understood to be para- or polyphyletic, with three evolutionarily independent (but partially sympatric) lineages that diverged c. 10 million years ago (mya). The similarities in gall structure that have justified recognition of single species to date thus represent either strong conservation of an ancestral state or striking convergence. All three lineages originated in areas to the east of Europe, underlining the significance of Turkey, Iran and the Levant as ‘cradles’ of gallwasp evolution. One of the three lineages gave rise to all European populations, and range expansion from a putative Eastern origin to the present distribution is predicted to have occurred around 1.6 mya.
- PublicationMétadonnées seulementDistribution of endosymbiotic reproductive manipulators reflects invasion process and not reproductive system polymorphism in the little fire ant Wasmannia auropunctata(2013)
;Rey, Olivier ;Estoup, Arnaud ;Facon, Benoit ;Loiseau, Anne ; ;Duron, Olivier ;Vavre, FabriceFoucaud, Julien
- PublicationMétadonnées seulementMolecular analysis of the gut contents of Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) as a method for detecting intra-guild predation by this species on aphidophagous predators other than coccinellids(2013)
;Ingels, Brecht ; ;Hautier, Louis ;Van Leeuwen, T.De Clercq, PatrickSeveral studies have demonstrated that the invasive ladybird Harmonia axyridis is a strong intra-guild predator of native species of ladybird. Laboratory studies have shown that H. axyridis can be an intra-guild predator of aphid predators other than coccinellids, including the hoverfly Episyrphus balteatus and lacewing Chrysoperla carnea. However, little is known about the effect of intra-guild predation (IGP) by H. axyridis on hoverfly and lacewing populations in the field. In the present study molecular analyses were used to detect the DNA of E. balteatus and C. carnea in the gut contents of H. axyridis. Primers for the syrphid and chrysopid prey were designed and feeding experiments performed to determine how long prey DNA remains detectable in the guts of this ladybird. DNA detection was influenced by the life stage of the predator and species of prey. Meal size did not affect detection time, except when fourth instar individuals of H. axyridis were fed 10 eggs or one second instar of C. carnea. Predator weight, sex and morpho-type (melanic/non-melanic) did not influence DNA detection. The half-life of the time for which the DNA of the prey remained detectable was calculated for each predator-prey combination, and ranged from 8.9 to 52.4 h. This method can be used to study the ecological importance of IGP by H. axyridis on aphidophagous predators other than coccinellids in the field.