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- PublicationAccès libreMalagasy Dracaena Vand. ex L. (Ruscaceae): an investigation of discrepancies between morphological features and spatial genetic structure at a small evolutionary scale(2009)
;Buerki, Sven ;Callmander, Martin W. ;Schüpfer, Fanny ;Ravokatra, Mamy ;Alvarez, NadirMalagasy Dracaena (Ruscaceae) are divided into four species and 14 varieties, all of them showing a high level of morphological diversity and a putatively artefactual circumscription. In order to reveal relationships between those entangled entities, a span of Malagasy Dracaena were sampled and analyzed using cpDNA sequences and AFLP. The cpDNA analyses resolved three biogeographic clades that are mostly inconsistent with morphology, since similar phenotypes are found across the three clades. Bayesian inference clustering analyses based on the AFLP were not in accordance with the cpDNA analysis. This result might be explained by (1) a recent origin of the Malagasy species of Dracaena with an incomplete sorting of chloroplast lineages; (2) a high amount of hybridizations; (3) a complex migration pattern. Interestingly, when the AFLP are analyzed using the parsimony criterion, a trend towards a directional evolution of inflorescence types and ecological features was observed. This might be considered either as phenotypic plasticity and/or as the result of fast evolution in flower characters according to habitat preferences. Overall, our results point to the difficulty of defining evolutionarily significant units in Malagasy Dracaena, emphasizing the complex speciation processes taking place in tropical regions.
- PublicationAccès libreHistory or ecology? Substrate type as a major driver of patial genetic structure in Alpine plants(2009)
;Alvarez, Nadir ;Thiel-Egenter, Conny ;Tribsch, Andreas ;Holderegger, Rolf ;Manel, Stéphanie ;Schönswetter, Peter ;Taberlet, Pierre ;Brodbeck, Sabine ;Gaudeul, Myriam ;Gielly, Ludovic ; ;Mansion, Guilhem ;Negrini, Riccardo ;Paun, Ovidiu ;Pellecchia, Marco ;Rioux, Delphine ;Schüpfer, Fanny ;Van Loo, Marcela ;Winkler, Manuela ;Gugerli, FelixIntraBioDiv ConsortiumClimatic history and ecology are considered the most important factors moulding the spatial pattern of genetic diversity. With the advent of molecular markers, species' historical fates have been widely explored. However, it has remained speculative what role ecological factors have played in shaping spatial genetic structures within species. With an unprecedented, dense large-scale sampling and genome-screening, we tested how ecological factors have influenced the spatial genetic structures in Alpine plants. Here, we show that species growing on similar substrate types, largely determined by the nature of bedrock, displayed highly congruent spatial genetic structures. As the heterogeneous and disjunctive distribution of bedrock types in the Alps, decisive for refugial survival during the ice ages, is temporally stable, concerted post-glacial migration routes emerged. Our multispecies study demonstrates the relevance of particular ecological factors in shaping genetic patterns, which should be considered when modelling species projective distributions under climate change scenarios.
- PublicationAccès libreGenetic structure and evolution of Alpine polyploid complexes: Ranunculus kuepferi (Ranunculaceae) as a case study(2009)
;Burnier, Julien ;Buerki, Sven ;Arrigo, Nils ;Alvarez, NadirThe alpine white-flowered buttercup, Ranunculus kuepferi Greuter & Burdet, is a polyploid complex with diploids endemic to the southwestern Alps and polyploids – which have been previously described as apomictic – widespread throughout European mountains. Due to the polymorphic status of both its ploidy level and its reproductive mode, R. kuepferi represents a key species for understanding the evolution of polyploid lineages in alpine habitats. To disentangle the phylogeography of this polyploid taxon, we used cpDNA sequences and AFLP (amplified fragment length polymorphism) markers in 33 populations of R. kuepferi representative of its ploidy level and distribution area. Polyploid individuals were shown to be the result of at least two polyploidization events that may have taken place in the southwestern Alps. From this region, one single main migration of tetraploids colonized the entire Alpine range, the Apennines and Corsica. Genetic recombination among tetraploids was also observed, revealing the facultative nature of the apomictic reproductive mode in R. kuepferi polyploids. Our study shows the contrasting role played by diploid lineages mostly restricted to persistent refugia and by tetraploids, whose dispersal abilities have permitted their range extension all over the previously glaciated Alpine area and throughout neighbouring mountain massifs.
- PublicationAccès libreNew insights into the phylogenetics and biogeography of Arum (Araceae): unravelling its evolutionary history(2010)
;Espíndola, Anahí ;Buerki, Sven ;Bedalov, Marija ;Alvarez, NadirThe heat- and odour-producing genus Arum (Araceae) has interested scientists for centuries. This long-term interest has allowed a deep knowledge of some complex processes, such as the physiology and dynamics of its characteristic lure-and-trap pollination system, to be built up. However, mainly because of its large distributional range and high degree of morphological variation, species' limits and relationships are still under discussion. Today, the genus comprises 28 species subdivided into two subgenera, two sections and six subsections. In this study, the phylogeny of the genus is inferred on the basis of four plastid regions, and the evolution of several morphological characters is investigated. Our phylogenetic hypothesis is not in agreement with the current infrageneric classification of the genus and challenges the monophyly of several species. This demonstrates the need for a new infrageneric classification based on characters reflecting the evolution of this enigmatic genus. To investigate the biogeography of Arum deeply, further spatiotemporal analyses were performed, addressing the importance of the Mediterranean basin in the diversification of Arum. Our results suggest that its centre of origin was the European–Aegean region, and that major diversification happened during the last 10 Myr.
- PublicationAccès librePlastid and nuclear DNA markers reveal intricate relationships at subfamilial and tribal levels in the soapberry family (Sapindaceae)(2009)
;Buerki, Sven ;Forest, Félix ;Acevedo-Rodríguez, Pedro ;Callmander, Martin W. ;Nylander, Johan A.A. ;Harrington, Mark ;Sanmartín, Isabel ;Alvarez, NadirThe economically important soapberry family (Sapindaceae) comprises about 1900 species mainly found in the tropical regions of the world, with only a few genera being restricted to temperate areas. The infrafamilial classification of the Sapindaceae and its relationships to the closely related Aceraceae and Hippocastanaceae – which have now been included in an expanded definition of Sapindaceae (i.e., subfamily Hippocastanoideae) – have been debated for decades. Here we present a phylogenetic analysis of Sapindaceae based on eight DNA sequence regions from the plastid and nuclear genomes and including 85 of the 141 genera defined within the family. Our study comprises 997 new sequences of Sapindaceae from 152 specimens. Despite presenting 18.6% of missing data our complete data set produced a topology fully congruent with the one obtained from a subset without missing data, but including fewer markers. The use of additional information therefore led to a consistent result in the relative position of clades and allowed the definition of a new phylogenetic hypothesis. Our results confirm a high level of paraphyly and polyphyly at the subfamilial and tribal levels and even contest the monophyletic status of several genera. Our study confirms that the Chinese monotypic genus Xanthoceras is sister to the rest of the family, in which subfamily Hippocastanoideae is sister to a clade comprising subfamilies Dodonaeoideae and Sapindoideae. On the basis of the strong support demonstrated in Sapindoideae, Dodonaeoideae and Hippocastanoideae as well as in 14 subclades, we propose and discuss informal groupings as basis for a new classification of Sapindaceae.