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- PublicationMétadonnées seulementContrasted effects of increased N and CO2 supply on two keystone species in peatland restoration and implications for global change1 Significant areas of temperate bogs have been damaged by peat harvesting but may regenerate. These secondary mires, if well managed, may act as strong C sinks, regulate hydrology and buffer regional climate. 2 The potential effects of bog regeneration will, however, depend on the successful establishment of the principal peat formers - Sphagnum mosses. The influence of hydrology and microclimate on Sphagnum re-growth is well studied but effects of elevated CO2 and N deposition are not known. 3 We carried out two in-situ experiments in a cutover bog during three growing seasons in which we raised either CO2 (to 560 p.p.m.) or N (by adding NH4NO3, 3 g m(-2) year(-1)). The two treatments had contrasting effects on competition between the initial coloniser Polytrichum strictum (favoured by high N) and the later coloniser Sphagnum fallax (favoured by high CO2). 4 Such changes may have important consequences for bog regeneration and hence for carbon sequestration in cutover bogs, with potential feedback on regional hydrological and climatic processes.
- PublicationMétadonnées seulementStructure of microbial communities in Sphagnum peatlands and effect of atmospheric carbon dioxide enrichmentLittle is known about the structure of microbial communities in Sphagnum peatlands, and the potential effects of the increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration on these communities are not known. We analyzed the structure of microbial communities in five Sphagnum-dominated peatlands across Europe and their response to CO2 enrichment using miniFACE systems. After three growing seasons, Sphagnum samples were analyzed for heterotrophic bacteria, cyanobacteria, microalgae, heterotrophic flagellates, ciliates, testate amoebae, fungi, nematodes, and rotifers. Heterotrophic organisms dominated the microbial communities and together represented 78% to 97% of the total microbial biomass. Testate amoebae dominated the protozoan biomass. A canonical correspondence analysis revealed a significant correlation between the microbial community data and four environmental variables (Na+, DOC, water table depth, and DIN), reflecting continentality, hydrology, and nitrogen deposition gradients. Carbon dioxide enrichment modified the structure of microbial communities, but total microbial biomass was unaffected. The biomass of heterotrophic bacteria increased by 48%, and the biomass of testate amoebae decreased by 13%. These results contrast with the absence of overall effect on methane production or on the vegetation, but are in line with an increased below-ground vascular plant biomass at the same sites. We interpret the increase in bacterial biomass as a response to a CO2-induced enhancement of Sphagnum exudation. The causes for the decrease of testate amoebae are unclear but could indicate a top-down rather than a bottom-up control on their density.
- PublicationMétadonnées seulementSpatio-temporal pattern of bog pine (Pinus uncinata var. rotundata) at the interface with the Norway spruce (Picea abies) belt on the edge of a raised bog in the Jura Mountains, Switzerland(2004)
;Freléchoux, François ;Buttler, Alexandre ;Schweingruber, FritzIn a bog site in way of paludification, a pine stand is declining, which presently is an infrequent phenomenon on the Swiss Jura scale. A transect was positioned in the bog, from the external and driest part (pine-spruce stand) towards the central and wettest part (pine stand). Water table, tree structure, tree age structure and pine radial growth were analysed with spatial and temporal references. The ground water level is very shallow and the hydrologic gradient is obvious during dry periods. Tree structure (height and diameter) is strongly linked to the hydrologic gradient. Two cohorts have invaded the bog with a 70-year-time period between them. The first one concerned the whole transect; it started around 1840 and could be related to a clear cutting on the fringe of the bog. After a quick initial radial growth, the pines reduced their radial growth abruptly (1870-1885), more quickly and strongly in the centre of the bog, where an important mortality was observed over the last 10 years. Bog pine can thus survive over decades with a very reduced growth and in very bogs probably constituted the bog pines' survival niche during paludification in the Jura bogs.
- PublicationMétadonnées seulementSuccession from bog pine (Pinus uncinata var. rotundata) to Norway spruce (Picea abies) stands in relation to anthropic factors in Les Saignolis bog, Jura Mountains, SwitzerlandIn Jura bogs, on deep and nutrient-poor peat, the ecotone between bog pine forest and Norway spruce forest is sharp and, in a few disturbed situations, no succession pine forest-spruce forest occurs. The bog Les Saignolis lies at the top of an anticline, on thin and oligotrophic peat. Several documents attest some anthropic disturbances (clear cut and drainage). Beside these historical data and with the aim of reconstructing vegetation dynamics and tree growth, we realised synusial phytosociological releves and, in a mixed pine-spruce stand, we studied tree radial growth. Following the clear cut, the bog pine, the pubescent birch, and the Norway spruce settled simultaneously. The birch disappeared rapidly. The present cohort of pine settled and grew rapidly, and then declined because of the competition by spruce. Spruce settled progressively and increased its growth regularly except when pine settled and grew. Interspecific competition between pines and spruces and intraspecific competition between dominant and sub-dominant spruces were put into evidence by radial growth analysis.