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  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Factors modulating cottongrass seedling growth stimulation to enhanced nitrogen and carbon dioxide: compensatory tradeoffs in leaf dynamics and allocation to meet potassium-limited growth
    (2013)
    Siegenthaler, Andy
    ;
    Buttler, Alexandre
    ;
    Grosvernier, Philippe
    ;
    ;
    Nilsson, Mats B.
    ;
    Eriophorum vaginatum is a characteristic species of northern peatlands and a keystone plant for cutover bog restoration. Understanding the factors affecting E. vaginatum seedling establishment (i.e. growth dynamics and allocation) under global change has practical implications for the management of abandoned mined bogs and restoration of their C-sequestration function. We studied the responses of leaf dynamics, above- and belowground biomass production of establishing seedlings to elevated CO2 and N. We hypothesised that nutrient factors such as limitation shifts or dilutions would modulate growth stimulation. Elevated CO2 did not affect biomass, but increased the number of young leaves in spring (+400 %), and the plant vitality (i.e. number of green leaves/total number of leaves) (+3 %), both of which were negatively correlated to [K+] in surface porewater, suggesting a K-limited production of young leaves. Nutrient ratios in green leaves indicated either N and K co-limitation or K limitation. N addition enhanced the number of tillers (+38 %), green leaves (+18 %), aboveground and belowground biomass (+99, +61 %), leaf mass-to-length ratio (+28 %), and reduced the leaf turnover (-32 %). N addition enhanced N availability and decreased [K+] in spring surface porewater. Increased tiller and leaf production in July were associated with a doubling in [K+] in surface porewater suggesting that under enhanced N production is K driven. Both experiments illustrate the importance of tradeoffs in E. vaginatum growth between: (1) producing tillers and generating new leaves, (2) maintaining adult leaves and initiating new ones, and (3) investing in basal parts (corms) for storage or in root growth for greater K uptake. The K concentration in surface porewater is thus the single most important factor controlling the growth of E. vaginatum seedlings in the regeneration of selected cutover bogs.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Litter- and ecosystem-driven decomposition under elevated CO2 and enhanced N deposition in a Sphagnum peatland
    (2010)
    Siegenthaler, Andy
    ;
    Buttler, Alexandre
    ;
    Bragazza, Luca
    ;
    van der Heijden, Edwin
    ;
    Grosvernier, Philippe
    ;
    ;
    Peatlands represent massive global C pools and sinks. Carbon accumulation depends on the ratio between net primary production and decomposition, both of which can change under projected increases of atmospheric CO2 and N deposition. The decomposition of litter is influenced by 1) the quality of the litter, and 2) the microenvironmental conditions in which the litter decomposes. This study aims at experimentally testing the effects of these two drivers in the context of global change. We studied the in situ litter decomposition from three common peatland species (Eriophorum vaginatum, Polytrichum strictum and Sphagnum fallax) collected after one year of litter production under pre-treatment conditions (elevated CO2: 560 ppm or enhanced N: 3 g m−2 y−1 NH4NO3) and decomposed the following year under treatment conditions (same as pre-treatment). By considering the cross-effects between pre-treatments and treatments, we distinguished between the effects on mass loss of 1) the pre-treatment-induced litter quality and 2) the treatment conditions under which the litters were decomposing. The combination between CO2 pre-treatment and CO2 treatment reduced Polytrichum decomposition by −24% and this can be explained by litter quality-driven decomposition changes brought by the pre-treatment. CO2 pre-treatment reduced Eriophorum litter quality, although this was not sufficient to predict decomposition. The N addition pre-treatment reduced the decomposition of Eriophorum, due to enhanced lignin and soluble phenols concentrations in the initial litter, and reduced litter-driven losses of starch and enhanced litter-driven losses of soluble phenols. While decomposition indices based on initial litter quality provide a broad explanation of quantitative and qualitative decomposition, they can only be taken as first approximations. Indeed, the microbial ATP activity, the litter N loss and resulting litter quality, were strongly altered irrespective of the compounds' initial concentration and by means of processes that occurred independently of the initial litter-qualitative changes. The experimental design was valuable to assess litter- and ecosystem-driven decomposition pathways simultaneously or independently. The ability to separate these two drivers makes it possible to attest the presence of litter-qualitative changes even without any litter biochemical determinations, and shows the screening potential of this approach for future experiments dealing with multiple plant species.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Structure of microbial communities in Sphagnum peatlands and effect of atmospheric carbon dioxide enrichment
    (2003) ;
    Gilbert, Daniel
    ;
    Buttler, Alexandre
    ;
    Amblard, Christian
    ;
    Grosvernier, Philippe
    ;
    Little is known about the structure of microbial communities in Sphagnum peatlands, and the potential effects of the increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration on these communities are not known. We analyzed the structure of microbial communities in five Sphagnum-dominated peatlands across Europe and their response to CO2 enrichment using miniFACE systems. After three growing seasons, Sphagnum samples were analyzed for heterotrophic bacteria, cyanobacteria, microalgae, heterotrophic flagellates, ciliates, testate amoebae, fungi, nematodes, and rotifers. Heterotrophic organisms dominated the microbial communities and together represented 78% to 97% of the total microbial biomass. Testate amoebae dominated the protozoan biomass. A canonical correspondence analysis revealed a significant correlation between the microbial community data and four environmental variables (Na+, DOC, water table depth, and DIN), reflecting continentality, hydrology, and nitrogen deposition gradients. Carbon dioxide enrichment modified the structure of microbial communities, but total microbial biomass was unaffected. The biomass of heterotrophic bacteria increased by 48%, and the biomass of testate amoebae decreased by 13%. These results contrast with the absence of overall effect on methane production or on the vegetation, but are in line with an increased below-ground vascular plant biomass at the same sites. We interpret the increase in bacterial biomass as a response to a CO2-induced enhancement of Sphagnum exudation. The causes for the decrease of testate amoebae are unclear but could indicate a top-down rather than a bottom-up control on their density.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Structure of microbial communities in Sphagnum peatlands and effect of atmospheric carbon dioxide enrichment
    (2003) ;
    Gilbert, Daniel
    ;
    Buttler, Alexandre
    ;
    Amblard, Christian
    ;
    Grosvernier, Philippe
    ;
    Little is known about the structure of microbial communities in Sphagnum peatlands, and the potential effects of the increasing atmospheric C02 concentration on these communities are not known. We analyzed the structure of microbial communities in five Sphagnum-dominated peatlands across Europe and their response to C02 enrichment using miniFACE systems. After three growing seasons, Sphagnum samples were analyzed for heterotrophic bacteria, cyanobacteria, microalgae, heterotrophic flagellates, ciliates, testate amoebae, fungi, nematodes, and rotifers. Heterotrophic organisms dominated the microbial communities and together represented 78% to 97% of the total microbial biomass. Testate amoebae dominated the protozoan biomass. A canonical correspondence analysis revealed a significant correlation between the microbial community data and four environmental variables (Na+, DOC, water table depth, and DIN), reflecting continentality, hydrology, and nitrogen deposition gradients. Carbon dioxide enrichment modified the structure of microbial communities, but total microbial biomass was unaffected. The biomass of heterotrophic bacteria increased by 48%, and the biomass of testate amoebae decreased by 13%. These results contrast with the absence of overall effect on methane production or on the vegetation, but are in line with an increased below-ground vascular plant biomass at the same sites. We interpret the increase in bacterial biomass as a response to a C02-induced enhancement of Sphagnum exudation. The causes for the decrease of testate amoebae are unclear but could indicate a top-down rather than a bottom-up control on their density.
  • Publication
    Métadonnées seulement
    Contrasted effects of increased N and CO2 supply on two keystone species in peatland restoration and implications for global change
    (2002-5-2) ;
    Buttler, Alexandre
    ;
    Grosvernier, Philippe
    ;
    Rydin, Hakan
    ;
    Siegenthaler, Andy
    ;
    1 Significant areas of temperate bogs have been damaged by peat harvesting but may regenerate. These secondary mires, if well managed, may act as strong C sinks, regulate hydrology and buffer regional climate. 2 The potential effects of bog regeneration will, however, depend on the successful establishment of the principal peat formers - Sphagnum mosses. The influence of hydrology and microclimate on Sphagnum re-growth is well studied but effects of elevated CO2 and N deposition are not known. 3 We carried out two in-situ experiments in a cutover bog during three growing seasons in which we raised either CO2 (to 560 p.p.m.) or N (by adding NH4NO3, 3 g m(-2) year(-1)). The two treatments had contrasting effects on competition between the initial coloniser Polytrichum strictum (favoured by high N) and the later coloniser Sphagnum fallax (favoured by high CO2). 4 Such changes may have important consequences for bog regeneration and hence for carbon sequestration in cutover bogs, with potential feedback on regional hydrological and climatic processes.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Contrasted effects of increased N and CO2 supply on two keystone species in peatland restoration and implications for global change
    (2002) ;
    Buttler, Alexandre
    ;
    Grosvernier, Philippe
    ;
    Rydin, HÅkan
    ;
    Siegenthaler, Andy
    ;
    1 Significant areas of temperate bogs have been damaged by peat harvesting but may regenerate. These secondary mires, if well managed, may act as strong C sinks, regulate hydrology and buffer regional climate.
    2 The potential effects of bog regeneration will, however, depend on the successful establishment of the principal peat formers –Sphagnum mosses. The influence of hydrology and microclimate on Sphagnum re-growth is well studied but effects of elevated CO2 and N deposition are not known.
    3 We carried out two in-situ experiments in a cutover bog during three growing seasons in which we raised either CO2 (to 560 p.p.m.) or N (by adding NH4NO3, 3 g m−2 year−1). The two treatments had contrasting effects on competition between the initial coloniser Polytrichum strictum (favoured by high N) and the later coloniser Sphagnum fallax (favoured by high CO2).
    4 Such changes may have important consequences for bog regeneration and hence for carbon sequestration in cutover bogs, with potential feedback on regional hydrological and climatic processes.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 and mineral nitrogen deposition on litter quality, bioleaching and decomposition in a sphagnum peat bog
    (: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001)
    Siegenthaler, Andy
    ;
    ;
    Van der Heijden, Edvin
    ;
    Buttler, Alexandre
    ;
    Grosvernier, Philippe
    ;
  • Publication
    Métadonnées seulement
    Can testate amoebae (Protozoa) and other micro-organisms help to overcome biogeographic bias in large scale global change research?
    (: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001) ;
    Gilbert, Daniel
    ;
    Butler, Alexandre
    ;
    Grosvernier, Philippe
    ;
    Albinsson, Christer
    ;
    Rydin, Hakan
    ;
    Buttler, Alexandre
    ;
    Heijmans, Monique
    ;
    Hoosbeek, Marcel
    ;
    Greenup, Alisson
    ;
    Foot, Jonathan
    ;
    Saarinen, Timo
    ;
    Vasander, Harri
    ;
  • Publication
    Métadonnées seulement
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Horizontal distribution patterns of testate amoebae (Protozoa) in a Sphagnum magellanicum carpet
    (2000-5-2) ;
    Borcard, D.
    ;
    Buttler, Alexandre
    ;
    Grosvernier, Philippe
    ;
    Gilbert, Daniel
    ;
    The distribution of soil microorganisms is generally believed to be patchy and to reflect habitat heterogeneity. Despite this general rule, the amount of existing data oil species distribution patterns is scarce. Testate amoebae (Protozoa; Rhizopoda) are an important component of soil microbial communities and are increasingly used in ecological and paleoecological studies of Sphagnum-dominated peatlands, but data on the spatial structure of communities are completely lacking. This is an important aspect since quantitative models used for paleoecological reconstruction and monitoring are based on species assemblages. We explored the distribution patterns of testate amoebae distribution in a macroscopically homogeneous Sphagnum carpet, down to a scale of several centimeters. Distributions maps of the species and spatially constrained sample groups were produced. Multivariate and individual spatial autocorrelations were calculated. The importance of spatial structure was quantified by canonical correspondence analysis. Our ultimate goal is to find the finest resolution of environmental monitoring using testate amoebae. The distribution patterns differed among species, resulting in a complex spatial structure of the species assemblage in a whole. Spatial structure accounted for 36% of the total variation of species abundance in a canonical correspondence analysis constrained by spatial variables. This structure was partly correlated to altitude (microtopography) at a very fine scale. These results confirmed the existence of significant broad-and fine-scale spatial structures within restate amoebae communities that could in parr be interpreted as effects of ecological gradients. This shows that, on a surface area of 0.25 m(2), ecological conditions which look uniform from a macroscopic point of view are not perceived as such by Sphagnum-inhabiting organisms. Therefore, restate amoebae could prove very useful to monitor fine-scale ecological processes or disturbances. Studies of the species' spatial distribution patterns in combination with autoecological studies are needed and should be included in the toolbox of biomonitoring itself.