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- PublicationAccès libreHiring discrimination on the basis of skin colour? A correspondence test in Switzerland
- PublicationAccès libreWhy Do Employers Sometimes Prefer Minority Candidates? Theoretical Review and Empirical Test(Neuchâtel : nccr - on the move, 2020-10)
; ;Bonoli, GiulianoFossati, FlaviaCorrespondence tests on ethnic discrimination in the labor market usually focus on how often native majority candidates and ethnic minority candidates are invited for job interviews on an aggregated level. Cases in which only minority candidates are invited for an interview have mostly been disregarded as noise and not analyzed further. In this paper, we argue that employers who prefer minority over majority candidates may have good reasons to do so. We propose several theoretical mechanisms that explain why it would be desirable to hire individuals with a non-native background and test these expectations quantitatively with correspondence test data that was collected in Switzerland between October 2017 and December 2018. We find partial support for our expectations: in particular, in urban and thus likely more international firm settings; and among owners doing the recruitment themselves in the context of small enterprises, where close supervision is possible, we identified employers who are more willing to “take the risk” and to invite only minority applicants for a job interview. We argue that employer behavior is likely to be complex and that research should analyze instances of minority preferences more systematically.
- PublicationAccès libreDo Swiss Citizens of Immigrant Origin Face Hiring Discrimination in the Labour Market?The extent to which discrimination in employment disadvantages children of immigrants is a major question both in economic research on labour market and in sociological studies of integration. This working paper contributes to the debate by reporting findings of a correspondence test in which pairs of equally qualified Swiss citizens –one from the majority group and one from one minority immigrant group –apply at job openings all over the country. Results show that children of immigrants holding Swiss qualifications and dual nationality need to send 30% more applications to receive a call-back for an interview when applying for apprenticeship level occupations. Chances of dual citizens to be invited to a job interview are largely the same across linguistic regions. These results partially confirm the findings of a correspondence test conducted in 2003. Unequal treatment is less frequent in occupations requiring tertiary level education compared to occupations requiring acompleted apprenticeship; this is however not the case for Swiss candidates of Kosovar descent. The results suggest the need for further inquiry in occupational differences and ethnic hierarchies in the Swiss labour market.
- PublicationAccès libreEthnic discrimination in the Swiss labour market - Ethnic hierarchies in correspondence test results(2018)
; ;D'Amato, Gianni ;Bonoli, Giuliano ;Haagensen, ArnfinnRich, JudyDans le cadre du projet individuel "Discrimination as an obstacle to social cohesion" du NCCR on the move, cette thèse porte sur la discrimination des minorités ethniques sur le marché du travail en Suisse. Étant donné que la discrimination n'est plus un phénomène ouvert et donc facilement observable, la recherche sur la discrimination, et en particulier sur la discrimination à l'embauche, est devenue plus difficile. Afin d'étudier et de mesurer l'ampleur de la discrimination dans les décisions d'embauche, les chercheurs ont utilisé diverses approches, selon les disciplines, s'appuyant principalement sur des analyses statistiques de données d'observation, de recherche comportementale, de recherche sur les attitudes et de recherche sur les victimes (Veenman 2010). Si toutes ces approches ont leurs forces et leurs faiblesses, on observe depuis quelques années une augmentation des expériences sur le terrain et en particulier des tests par correspondance. Depuis la fin des années 1960, les chercheurs ont eu recours à des expériences sur le terrain dans le cadre desquelles deux candidats ayant des qualifications échangeables qui ne diffèrent que par la caractéristique à mesurer postulent pour le même emploi. Ces expériences ont été utilisées avec succès pour quantifier l'ampleur de la discrimination à laquelle sont confrontés les candidats minoritaires dans un nombre croissant de pays, et en particulier des pays de l'OCDE. Ce mémoire porte sur la discrimination ethnique dans les décisions d'embauche dans la partie germanophone du marché du travail en Suisse et utilise un test par correspondance comme méthodologie de base. Les principales questions de recherche abordées dans ce projet sont : - Existe-t-il une discrimination ethnique sur le marché du travail en Suisse ? - Existe-t-il des hiérarchies ethniques sur le marché du travail en Suisse ? - La discrimination sur le marché du travail en Suisse a-t-elle changé dans le temps par rapport à Fibbi et al (2003) ? - Comment les résultats du marché suisse du travail se comparent-ils à ceux d'autres pays dans lesquels des tests par correspondance ont été effectués ? - La discrimination ne se produit-elle que dans les décisions d'embauche ? En plus de contribuer à la littérature en fournissant des données sur la discrimination ethnique dans les décisions d'embauche, cette thèse contribue également au débat théorique sur la question de savoir si la discrimination est due au goût ou aux statistiques. La thèse montre que les tests de correspondance sur les marchés du travail germanophones ont révélé des taux de discrimination inférieurs à la moyenne internationale et offrent des caractéristiques spécifiques des marchés du travail des pays germanophones comme explications possibles. Par rapport à la plupart des tests par correspondance sur la discrimination ethnique à l'embauche, il va plus loin que la simple présentation des résultats descriptifs classiques d'un test par correspondance, à savoir si les candidats ont été invités ou non à un entretien d'embauche, mais analyse également qualitativement les réponses reçues par e-mail des employeurs potentiels., As a part of the NCCR on the move’s individual project on “Discrimination as an obstacle to social cohesion”, this dissertation focuses on the discrimination of ethnic minorities in the Swiss labour market. Since discrimination is no longer an overt and thus easily observable phenomenon, research on discrimination, and especially on discrimination in hiring decisions has become more challenging. In order to study and measure the extent of discrimination in hiring decisions, researchers have used diverse approaches, depending on the disciplines, mostly drawing on statistical analyses of observational data, behavioural research, attitude research, and victim research (Veenman 2010). While all of these approaches have their strength and weaknesses, a rise of field experiments and in particular correspondence testing can be observed in recent years. Since the late 1960s researchers have used field experiments in which two candidates with exchangeable qualifications that differ only in the characteristic to be measured apply for the same job. These experiments have been successfully used to quantify the extent of discrimination faced by minority applicants in an increasing number of (in particular) OECD countries. This dissertation focuses on ethnic discrimination in hiring decisions in the German speaking part of the Swiss labour market and it uses a correspondence test as its core methodology. The main research question addressed in this project are: - Do we find ethnic discrimination in the Swiss labour market? - Do ethnic hierarchies exist in the Swiss labour market? - Did discrimination in the Swiss labour market change of time compared to Fibbi et al. (2003)? - How do the results from the Swiss labour market compare to other countries in which correspondence tests have been conducted? - Does discrimination only occur in hiring decisions? Next to contributing to the literature by providing data on ethnic discrimination in hiring decisions, this dissertation also contributes to the theoretical debate whether discrimination is due to taste or statistics. It shows that correspondence tests in German speaking labour markets have reported discrimination rates that are lower than the international average and offers specific characteristics of labour markets in German speaking countries as possible explanations. Compared to most correspondence tests on ethnic discrimination in hiring, it goes further than “just” presenting the classical descriptive results of a correspondence tests, i.e. whether applicants were invited for a job interview or not, but also qualitatively analyses the email responses that were received from potential employers.
- PublicationAccès libreMeasuring Hiring Discrimination – A History of Field Experiments in Discrimination ResearchEthnic and racial discrimination in the hiring process is a common and documented problem. Scientists from different backgrounds and numerous countries have tried to measure the extent of this form of discrimination, mostly by using field experiments such as audit or correspondence tests. This paper will provide an overview of the literature on measuring discrimination in more general terms as well as reviewing the studies already conducted that focus on ethnic or racial discrimination in hiring. It will focus on how discrimination is defined in different disciplines, on the historical political context in which field experiments have emerged once anti-discrimination legislation was adopted in the US and the UK and how the technique was developed further over time. Methodological issues such as the difference between audit (i.e. in-person) and correspondence test (i.e. CV-based) will be addressed as well as the ethical and legal stumbling blocks researchers can encounter when conducting field experiments. It will be shown that today’s field experiments not only cover a wider group of countries, professions or minority groups, but also increasingly add more variables to the testing. Despite this variety in the research designs, this paper concludes that certain trends can be observed in all tests and that discrimination in hiring can be found in all countries where field experiments were conducted.
- PublicationAccès libreRevisiting Ethics in Correspondence TestingQuestions of research ethics always arise when planning a correspondence test to study discrimination in the market place. However, the issue is addressed relatively little in published correspondence tests with authors usually referring to the two seminal articles written in this field (i.e. Banton (1997) and Riach and Rich (2004)). Since then correspondence testing has become more widespread and the technique is increasingly relying on the internet to find and send applications. It is therefore necessary to revisit the question of ethics in correspondence testing. This paper addresses the ethical issues that researchers are facing in correspondence tests that study discrimination in hiring decisions in the labour market in particular. It provides a short overview on the development of research ethic guidelines. The main part of the paper focuses on the ethical issues that arise in correspondence testing, looking at questions of covert research, potential problems (regarding voluntary participation, informed consent, deception, entrapment of employers, employer’s rights), possible solutions and technical challenges. Looking at specific country examples, decisions by ethical commissions and national legal frameworks are considered. These show that testing has to be renegotiated depending on the national context, and, in the case of Germany, legal implications of correspondence testing are discussed. The paper concludes that correspondence testing, if planned carefully and executed responsibly, does not violate research ethics in social sciences.
- PublicationAccès libreEthnic discrimination in hiring decisions: A meta-analysis of correspondence tests 1990–2015For almost 50 years field experiments have been used to study ethnic and racial discrimination in hiring decisions, consistently reporting high rates of discrimination against minority applicants – including immigrants – irrespective of time, location, or minority groups tested. While Peter A. Riach and Judith Rich [2002. “Field Experiments of Discrimination in the Market Place.” The Economic Journal 112 (483): F480–F518] and Judith Rich [2014. “What Do Field Experiments of Discrimination in Markets Tell Us? A Meta Analysis of Studies Conducted since 2000.” In Discussion Paper Series. Bonn: IZA] provide systematic reviews of existing field experiments, no study has undertaken a meta-analysis to examine the findings in the studies reported. In this article, we present a meta-analysis of 738 correspondence tests in 43 separate studies conducted in OECD countries between 1990 and 2015. In addition to summarising research findings, we focus on groups of specific tests to ascertain the robustness of findings, emphasising differences across countries, gender, and economic contexts. Moreover we examine patterns of discrimination, by drawing on the fact that the groups considered in correspondence tests and the contexts of testing vary to some extent. We focus on first- and second-generation immigrants, differences between specific minority groups, the implementation of EU directives, and the length of job application packs.