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Burned out workers live in a depressive cognitive world: The example of U.S. teachers

2015-5-6, Bianchi, Renzo, Schonfeld, Irvin Sam

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Women's advantage at remembering others' appearance: A systematic look at the why and when of a gender difference

2006, Schmid Mast, Marianne, Hall, Judith

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How Accurate Is Information Transmitted to Medical Professionals Joining a Medical Emergency? A Simulator Study

2009, Bogenstätter, Yvonne, Tschan, Franziska, Semmer, Norbert, Spychiger, Martin, Breuer, Marc, Marsch, Stephan

Objective: This study used a high-fidelity simulation to examine factors influencing the accuracy of 201 pieces of information transmitted to nurses and physicians joining a medical emergency situation. Background: Inaccurate or incomplete information transmission has been identified as a major problem in medicine. However, only a few studies have assessed possible causes of transmission errors. Method: Each of 20 groups was composed of two or three nurses (first responders), one resident joining the group later, and one senior doctor joining last. Groups treated a patient suffering a cardiac arrest. Results: Multilevel binomial analyses showed that 18% of the information given to newcomers was inaccurate. Quantitative information requiring repeated updating was particularly error prone. Information generated earlier (i.e., older information) was more likely to be transmitted inaccurately. Explicitly encoding information to be transmitted after the physicians arrived at the scene enhanced accuracy, supporting transfer-appropriate processing theory. Conclusion: Information transmitted to nurses and physicians who join an ongoing emergency is only partly reliable. Therefore, medical professionals should not take accuracy for granted and should be aware of the nature of transmission errors. Application: Medical professionals should be trained in adequate encoding of information and in standardized communication procedures with regard to error-prone information. In addition, technical devices should be implemented that reduce reliance on memory regarding information with error-prone characteristics.

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Determinants of attitudes toward affirmative action in a Swiss sample

2007, Krings, Franciska, Tschan, Franziska, Bettex, Sophie

162 Swiss employees were surveyed to assess knowledge of and attitudes toward different types of affirmative action programs (AA.Ps) for women. Findings show that knowledge of AA.Ps was limited and AAPs were most frequently associated with child care measures. Attitudes toward opportunity enhancement programs, especially toward child care, were more positive than toward preferential selection and positive discriminatory programs. Women held more positive attitudes toward AA.Ps. However, for some attitudes, gender differences were entirely mediated by symbolic prejudice toward working women. Independently of gender, symbolic prejudice was a key predictor of all attitudes. Measures of selfview (self-esteem and gender self-concept) were largely unrelated to attitudes toward AA.Ps. Implications for research and organizations are discussed.

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Eye fixation distribution in dysphoria: Is there a mood-congruent visual search strategy?

2011-8-21, Laurent, Eric, Bianchi, Renzo

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Lay perceptions of collectives at the outbreak of the H1N1 epidemic: heroes, villains and victims

2011, Wagner-Egger, Pascal, Bangerter, Adrian, Gilles, Ingrid, Green, Eva G. T., Rigaud, David, Krings, Franciska, Staerklé, Christian, Clémence, Alain

Lay perceptions of collectives (e.g., groups, organizations, countries) implicated in the 2009 H1N1 outbreak were studied. Collectives serve symbolic functions to help laypersons make sense of the uncertainty involved in a disease outbreak. We argue that lay representations are dramatized, featuring characters like heroes, villains and victims. In interviews conducted soon after the outbreak, 47 Swiss respondents discussed the risk posed by H1N1, its origins and effects, and protective measures. Countries were the most frequent collectives mentioned. Poor, underdeveloped countries were depicted as victims, albeit ambivalently, as they were viewed as partly responsible for their own plight. Experts (physicians, researchers) and political and health authorities were depicted as heroes. Two villains emerged: the media (viewed as fear mongering or as a puppet serving powerful interests) and private corporations (e.g., the pharmaceutical industry). Laypersons’ framing of disease threat diverges substantially from official perspectives.

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Cultural transmission in a food preparation task: The role of interactivity, innovation and storytelling.

, Bietti, Lucas, Bangerter, Adrian, Knutsen, Dominique, Mayor, Eric

Interactive conversation drives the transmission of cultural information in small groups and large networks. In formal (e.g. schools) and informal (e.g. home) learning settings, interactivity does not only allow individuals and groups to faithfully transmit and learn new knowledge and skills, but also to boost cumulative cultural evolution. Here we investigate how interactivity affects performance, teaching, learning, innovation and chosen diffusion mode (e.g. instructional discourse vs. storytelling) of previously acquired information in a transmission chain experiment. In our experiment, participants (n = 288) working in 48 chains with three generations of pairs had to learn and complete a collaborative food preparation task (ravioli-making), and then transmit their experience to a new generation of participants in an interactive and non-interactive condition. Food preparation is a real-world task that it is taught and learned across cultures and transmitted over generations in families and groups. Pairs were defined as teachers or learners depending on their role in the transmission chain. The number of good exemplars of ravioli each pair produced was taken as measurement of performance. Contrary to our expectations, the results did not reveal that (1) performance increased over generations or that (2) interactivity in transmission sessions promoted increased performance. However, the results showed that (3) interactivity promoted the transmission of more information from teachers to learners; (4) increased quantity of information transmission from teachers led to higher performance in learners; (5) higher performance generations introduced more innovations in transmission sessions; (6) learners applied those transmitted innovations to their performance which made them persist over generations; (7) storytelling was specialized for the transmission of non-routine, unexpected information. Our findings offer new insights on how interactivity, innovation and storytelling affect the cultural transmission of complex collaborative tasks.

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Hospital staff corridor conversations: work in passing

, González-Martínez, Esther, Bangerter, Adrian, Lê Van, Kim, Navarro, Cécile

Aims: First, to document the prevalence of corridor occupations and conversations among the staff of a hospital clinic, and their main features. Second, to examine the activities accomplished through corridor conversations and their interactional organization.
Background: Despite extensive research on mobility in hospital work, we still know fairly little about the prevalence and features of hospital staff corridor conversations and how they are organized.
Design: We conducted a study combining descriptive statistical analysis and multimodal conversation analysis of video recordings of staff corridor practices in a hospital outpatient clinic in Switzerland.
Methods: In 2012, we collected 59 hours of video recordings in a corridor of a hospital clinic. We coded and statistically analysed the footage that showed the clinic staff exclusively. We also performed qualitative multimodal conversation analysis on a selection of the recorded staff conversations.
Results: Corridor occupations by the clinic staff are frequent and brief and rarely involve stops. Talk events (which include self-talk, face-to-face conversations and telephone conversations) during occupations are also brief and mobile, overwhelmingly focus on professional topics and are particularly frequent when two or more staff members occupy the corridor. The conversations present several interactional configurations and comprise an array of activities consequential to the provision of care and work organization.
Conclusion: These practices are related to the fluid work organization of a spatially distributed team in a fast-paced, multitasking environment and should be taken into consideration in any undertaking aimed at improving hospital units’ functioning.

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Storytelling as adaptive collective sensemaking

2018-6-28, Bietti, Lucas, Tilston, Ottilie, Bangerter, Adrian

Storytelling represents a key element in the creation and propagation of culture. Three main accounts of the adaptive function of storytelling include (a) manipulating the behavior of the audience to enhance the fitness of the narrator, (b) transmitting survival‐relevant information while avoiding the costs involved in the first‐hand acquisition of that information, and (c) maintaining social bonds or group‐level cooperation. We assess the substantial evidence collected in experimental and ethnographic studies for each account. These accounts do not always appeal to the specific features of storytelling above and beyond language use in general. We propose that the specific adaptive value of storytelling lies in making sense of non‐routine, uncertain, or novel situations, thereby enabling the collaborative development of previously acquired skills and knowledge, but also promoting social cohesion by strengthening intragroup identity and clarifying intergroup relations.

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Female dominance hierarchies: Are they any different from males'?

2002, Schmid Mast, Marianne