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- PublicationAccès libreObservation of a Repeated Step-wise Fracture Growth During Hydraulic Fracturing Experiment at the Grimsel Test SiteHydraulic fracturing (HF) experiments were conducted at the Grimsel Test Site (GTS), Switzerland, with the aim to improve our understanding of the seismo-hydro-mechanical processes associated with high-pressure fluid injection in a moderately fractured crystalline rock mass. Observations from one of these HF experiments indicate simultaneous propagation of multiple fractures during continuous fluid injection. The pressure measured in one observation interval show a cyclic response indicating repeated step-wise fracture growth. This is interpreted as a stick-split mechanism propagating fractures in an episodic manner and connecting them to the natural fracture network. In addition, transient partial closure and opening of fractures on the time-scale of seconds to minutes were observed from pressure and deformation monitoring. Our data set provides unprecedented insight in the complexity of hydraulic fracture propagation.
- PublicationAccès libreCharacterization, Hydraulic Stimulation, and Fluid Circulation Experiments in the Bedretto Underground Laboratory for Geosciences and Geoenergies(: ARMA, 2021-6-18)
;Hertrich, Marian ;Brixel, Bernard ;Broeker, Kai ;Driesner, Thomas ;Gholizadeh, Nima ;Giardini, Domenico ;Jordan, D. ;Krietsch, Hannes ;Loew, Simon ;Ma, Xiadong ;Maurer, Hansruedi ;Nejati, M. ;Plenkers, K. ;Rast, M. ;Saar, Martin O. ;Shakas, A. ;van Limborgh, R. ;Villiger, Linus ;Wenning, Q. C. ;Ciardo, F. ;Kaestli, P. ;Obermann, A. ;Rinaldi, P. ;Wiemer, Stefan ;Zappone, Alba ;Bethmann, Falco ;Christe, Fabien ;Castilla, Raymi ;Dyer, Ben ;Karvounis, Dimitrios ;Meier, Peter ;Serbeto, Francisco ;Amann, Florian ;Gischig, ValentinReservoir stimulation and hydraulic fracturing in oil-and-gas reservoirs has become common practice and the techniques are continuously improved. However, directly applying the same techniques to extract geothermal energy from low permeability crystalline rocks (i.e., Enhanced Geothermal Systems, EGS) continues to present operational challenges. The research community and industry have shown great interest in addressing the unresolved problems using down-scaled in-situ hydraulic stimulation experiments. Focus has been on the 1–10 m field scale, but in comparison to a realistic EGS operations (1000s m) the scale is two orders too small, the depth and associate stress field differ, and the hydraulic conditions are not perfectly representative. To study the processes in-situ and to bridge the scale between in-situ labs and actual EGS projects, the Bedretto Underground Laboratory for Geosciences and Geoenergies (BULGG) was built in a tunnel in the Swiss Alps so that hydraulic stimulation experiments could be performed with dense monitoring systems at the 100 m scale. This effort enables process-oriented research and testing of field scale techniques at conditions that are closer to target reservoir depths and scale. This study gives in-sight on the initial geologic, hydraulic, and stress characterization of the BULGG related to on-going stimulation and circulation experiments
- PublicationMétadonnées seulementStress Characterisation and stress modeling at the Grimsel Test Site for the In-situ Stimulation and Circulation Project
- PublicationAccès libreOn the link between stress field and small-scale hydraulic fracture growth in anisotropic rock derived from microseismicity(2018-7-1)
;Gischig, Valentin ;Doetsch, J. ;Maurer, Hansruedi ;Krietsch, Hannes ;Amann, Florian ;Evans, Keith F. ;Nejati, M. ;Jalali, Mohammadreza ; ;Obermann, A. ;Wiemer, StefanGiardini, Domenico
- PublicationAccès libreHydraulic stimulation and fluid circulation experiments in underground laboratories: Stepping up the scale towards engineered geothermal systems(2020-1-2)
;Gischig, Valentin ;Giardini, Domenico ;Amann, Florian ;Hertrich, Marian ;Krietsch, Hannes ;Loew, Simon ;Maurer, Hansruedi ;Villiger, Linus ;Wiemer, Stefan ;Bethmann, Falco ;Brixel, Bernard ;Doetsch, J. ;Gholizadeh, Nima ;Driesner, Thomas ; ;Evans, Keith F. ;Jalali, Mohammadreza ;Jordan, D. ;Kittilä, A. ;Ma, Xiadong ;Meier, Peter ;Nejati, M. ;Obermann, A. ;Plenkers, K. ;Saar, Martin O. ;Shakas, A.The history of reservoir stimulation to extract geothermal energy from low permeability rock (i.e. so-called petrothermal or engineered geothermal systems, EGS) highlights the difficulty of creating fluid pathways between boreholes, while keeping induced seismicity at an acceptable level. The worldwide research community sees great value in addressing many of the unresolved problems in down-scaled in-situ hydraulic stimulation experiments. Here, we present the rationale, concepts and initial results of stimulation experiments in two underground laboratories in the crystalline rocks of the Swiss Alps. A first experiment series at the 10 m scale was completed in 2017 at the Grimsel Test Site, GTS. Observations of permeability enhancement and induced seismicity show great variability between stimulation experiments in a small rock mass body. Monitoring data give detailed insights into the complexity of fault stimulation induced by highly heterogeneous pressure propagation, the formation of new fractures and stress redistribution. Future experiments at the Bedretto Underground Laboratory for Geoenergies, BULG, are planned to be at the 100 m scale, closer to conditions of actual EGS projects, and a step closer towards combining fundamental process-oriented research with testing techniques proposed by industry partners. Thus, effective and safe hydraulic stimulation approaches can be developed and tested, which should ultimately lead to an improved acceptance of EGS
- PublicationAccès libreHydromechanical processes and their influence on the stimulation effected volume: observations from a decameter-scale hydraulic stimulation project(2020-9-4)
;Krietsch, Hannes ;Gischig, Valentin ;Doetsch, J. ;Evans, Keith F. ;Villiger, Linus ;Jalali, Mohammadreza ; ;Loew, SimonAmann, FlorianSix hydraulic shearing experiments have been conducted in the framework of the In-situ Stimulation and Circulation experiment within a decameter-scale crystalline rock volume at the Grimsel Test Site, Switzerland. During each experiment fractures associated with one out of two shear zone types were hydraulically reactivated. The two shear zone types differ in terms of tectonic genesis and architecture. An extensive monitoring system of sensors recording seismicity, pressure and strain was spatially distributed in 11 boreholes around the injection locations. As a result of the stimulation, the near-wellbore transmissivity increased up to 3 orders in magnitude. With one exception, jacking pressures were unchanged by the stimulations. Transmissivity change, jacking pressure and seismic activity were different for the two shear zone types, suggesting that the shear zone architectures govern the seismo-hydromechanical response. The elevated fracture fluid pressures associated with the stimulations propagated mostly along the stimulated shear zones. The absence of high-pressure signals away from the injection point for most experiments (except two out of six experiments) is interpreted as channelized flow within the shear zones. The observed deformation field within 15–20 m from the injection point is characterized by variable extensional and compressive strain produced by fracture normal opening and/or slip dislocation, as well as stress redistribution related to these processes. At greater distance from the injection location, strain measurements indicate a volumetric compressive zone, in which strain magnitudes decrease with increasing distance. These compressive strain signals are interpreted as a poro-elastic far-field response to the emplacement of fluid volume around the injection interval. Our hydromechanical data reveal that the overall stimulation effected volume is significantly larger than implied by the seismicity cloud and can be subdivided into a primary stimulated and secondary effected zone.
- PublicationMétadonnées seulementDevelopment of connected permeability in massive crystalline rocks through hydraulic fracture propagation and shearing accompanying fluid injection
- PublicationMétadonnées seulementPreliminary stress characterization for an in-situ stimulation experiment at the Grimsel Underground Laboratory(2016-4-1)
;Krietsch, Hannes ;Doetsch, J. ;Gischig, Valentin ;Amann, Florian ;Jalali, Mohammadreza ;Madonna, Claudio ;Evans, Keith F. ; ;Giardini, Domenico ;Wiemer, Stefan ;Maurer, HansruediLoew, SimonA decameter-scale in-situ stimulation experiment is currently being executed at the Grimsel Test Site in Switzerland, spanning from hydraulic fracturing to controlled fault-slip experiments. For the feasibility of this project the in-situ stress tensor is of foremost importance. Therefore a unique stress characterization campaign combining stress relief methods (overcoring of USBM and CSIRO-HI probes) with hydraulic fracturing (HF) and hydraulic testing on pre-existing fractures (HTPF) in three boreholes was conducted in a first phase of this project. During all hydraulic stress measurements, micro-seismicity was monitored and localized in real time utilizing a dense network of piezo-electric sensors. In this contribution, we present preliminary results of the stress characterization and compare the derived stress tensor with previous estimates of the stress state. The stress characterization campaign was conducted in three boreholes, one sub-vertical and two sub-horizontal boreholes, assuming that the sub-vertical and one sub-horizontal are parallel to a principal stress component. A major task in this contribution is the integration of the different stress characterization methods. Our results of the different methods (overcoring and HF) are largely consistent, but disagree with some of the previous stress orientation estimates. From the new campaign the overcoring measurements indicate a sub-horizontal sigma1 of 17.3 MPa with a strike of 145°, a sigma2 of 9.7 MPa with 241°/69° and a sigma3 of 8.3 MPa with 055°/21° using an isotropic approach for inversion calculation. Whereas the USBM-Probe measures a projection of the principal stresses in a plane normal to borehole axis, the CSIRO-HI Probe provides the real 3D stress tensor. The HF and HTPF measurements indicate a far-field minimum horizontal stress between 8.7 and 9.1 MPa, consistent with the overcoring. Principal stresses, estimated by location of micro-seismic events during HF and HTPF, suggest that the maximum horizontal stress strikes EW, the minimum horizontal stress strikes NS and sigma2 stress direction is sub-vertical dipping towards south. One sub-horizontal borehole dedicated to stress characterization penetrates one of the fault zones targeted for a future fault-slip experiment. Results reveal a significant drop in the minimum stress component towards the fault zone. This stress information will be critical for the planning of the stimulation phase of the project.
- PublicationAccès libreInfluence of reservoir geology on seismic response during decameter-scale hydraulic stimulations in crystalline rockWe performed a series of 12 hydraulic stimulation experiments in a 20 m×20 m×20 m foliated, crystalline rock volume intersected by two distinct fault sets at the Grimsel Test Site, Switzerland. The goal of these experiments was to improve our understanding of stimulation processes associated with high-pressure fluid injection used for reservoir creation in enhanced or engineered geothermal systems. In the first six experiments, pre-existing fractures were stimulated to induce shear dilation and enhance permeability. Two types of shear zones were targeted for these hydroshearing experiments: (i) ductile ones with intense foliation and (ii) brittle–ductile ones associated with a fractured zone. The second series of six stimulations were performed in borehole intervals without natural fractures to initiate and propagate hydraulic fractures that connect the wellbore to the existing fracture network. The same injection protocol was used for all experiments within each stimulation series so that the differences observed will give insights into the effect of geology on the seismo-hydromechanical response rather than differences due to the injection protocols. Deformations and fluid pressure were monitored using a dense sensor network in boreholes surrounding the injection locations. Seismicity was recorded with sensitive in situ acoustic emission sensors both in boreholes and at the tunnel walls. We observed high variability in the seismic response in terms of seismogenic indices, b values, and spatial and temporal evolution during both hydroshearing and hydrofracturing experiments, which we attribute to local geological heterogeneities. Seismicity was most pronounced for injections into the highly conductive brittle–ductile shear zones, while the injectivity increase on these structures was only marginal. No significant differences between the seismic response of hydroshearing and hydrofracturing was identified, possibly because the hydrofractures interact with the same pre-existing fracture network that is reactivated during the hydroshearing experiments. Fault slip during the hydroshearing experiments was predominantly aseismic. The results of our hydraulic stimulations indicate that stimulation of short borehole intervals with limited fluid volumes (i.e., the concept of zonal insulation) may be an effective approach to limit induced seismic hazard if highly seismogenic structures can be avoided.
- PublicationMétadonnées seulementReservoir Stimulation Experiments at the Grimsel Test Site: Stress Measurements using Hydraulic fracturing, Hydraulic Tests on Pre-existing Fractures and Overcoring(2015-12-1)
;Doetsch, J. ;Gischig, Valentin ;Amann, Florian ;Madonna, Claudio ;Jalali, Mohammadreza ;Evans, Keith F.