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- PublicationAccès libreA new in vitro test to evaluate the resistance level against acaricides of the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus(2011-7-1)In this article we present a new bioassay to assess the resistance status of ticks to acaricides. The larval tarsal test (LTT) is a sensitive, highly time-effective in vitro test. It allows the investigation of a large number of compounds and doses on the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus in a short period of time. The ability of the LTT to assess the lethal concentration at 50% mortality (LC50) and resistance ratios (RRs) of a susceptible and a resistant R. microplus strain was compared with the FAO-recommended Larval Packet Test (LPT). Representative compounds of the carbamate, organophosphate (OP), synthetic pyrethroid (SP), formamidine (FOR), macrocyclic lactone and pyrazole classes were used for this comparison. The resistance status against OP, SP and FOR of the resistant R. microplus strain was confirmed in vivo. The LTT resulted in resistance ratios comparable to those obtained with the LPT. However, the lethal concentrations were up to 150-fold lower in the LTT than the in LPT. The advantage of the LTT is to simplify the methodology by avoiding the handling of larvae and using multi-well plates. The LTT is therefore a suitable test for the assessment of the level of resistance of R. microplus and is very promising to evaluate the resistance profile of field strains. Additionally, the LTT is also suitable to test other ixodid species.
- PublicationAccès libreDistribution patterns of three sodium channel mutations associated with pyrethroid resistance in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus populations from North and South America, South Africa and Australia(2012-9-3)Resistance to synthetic pyrethroids (SP) in the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is widespread throughout its distribution area. Three single nucleotide substitutions identified in Domains II and III of the sodium channel gene of R. (B.) microplus are known to be associated with target site pyrethroid resistance. We developed a multiplex PCR using allele-specific primers to amplify wild type or mutated genotypes of the three mutations simultaneously. This assay was used to screen tick samples originating from Brazil, Argentina, Mexico, South Africa and Australia whose phenotype to flumethrin and cypermethrin had been determined by the use of the Larval Tarsal test (LTT) or the Larval Packet Test (LPT). These mutations were found to have distinct geographical distributions and result in different resistance phenotypes. The L64I Domain II mutation conferring resistance to several SP compounds was found in all the Brazilian, Argentinean and Australian populations and in one South African population, with frequencies between 38% and 100% in flumethrin and cypermethrin resistant populations, respectively. In contrast, this mutation was not found in samples from Mexico, while the Domain III mutation was found exclusively in this country. The G72V Domain II flumethrin-specific mutation was found in a single Australian population, at a very low frequency (6%). The homozygous resistant RR genotype of the L64I Domain II mutation correlated significantly with the survival rates at the discriminating doses of flumethrin and cypermethrin. This survey shows the widespread distribution of the L64I Domain II mutation and provides evidence of its geographic separation from the Domain III mutation.
- PublicationAccès libreUse of the Larval Tarsal Test to determine acaricide resistance in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus Brazilian field populations(2012-9-10)Acaricide resistance of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is widespread in most of the countries where this parasite is present. Bioassays are used to diagnose the level and pattern of resistance in tick populations. In the present study, we describe a detailed protocol of the Larval Tarsal Test (LTT) using simplified equipment and data on the resistance of 17 tick field populations originating from 5 Brazilian states. Nine acaricidal compounds from 5 major classes were tested: organophosphates (OP), synthetic pyrethroids (SP), macrocyclic lactones (ML), phenylpyrazols (PYZ) and amidines. For comparison, four of the tick populations were also tested with the Larval Packet Test (LPT) with one compound per class. The most common resistances were to SP, amitraz and OP, with frequencies of 94%, 88% and 82%, respectively. Resistance to PYZ was also found to be widespread (65%), suggesting a rapid development of fipronil resistance in Brazil. One case of ML resistance and 2 cases of suspected ML resistance were identified with the LTT. The LTT led to higher resistance ratios to all compounds than the LPT, reflecting its high sensitivity to detect resistance. Finally, the LTT allowed testing a larger number of compounds and doses with reduced labour in comparison to the LPT and turned out to be a reliable bioassay to detect resistance in field populations.