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- PublicationAccès librePrediction of Filter Performances against Organic Vapours: Statistical Analysis of Breakthrough Times as a Basis for a Simple Prediction Model(2005)
;Lavanchy, André ;Liebi, R. ;Hugi-Cleary, DeirdreThe prediction of the protection efficiency of NBC-respiratory filters against organic vapours is often very difficult, especially when strong physical interactions or chemisorption processes are invoved. The presented statistical analysis is an attempt to develop a simple, but reliable, prediction model for breakthrough times. In over 70 experiments run under conditions of the EN 141 guidelines the breakthrough times of 39 organic compounds including alkanes, cyclo-alkanes, alkenes, alcohols, ketones and carboxylic acids have been measured for a given filter type. A linear regression model is then postulated to relate the breakthrough time to the adsorptive properties. For the model, each adsorptive molecule has been considered to be composed of a chemical functional group and a chain radical, resulting in a two dimensional structural code. The number of carbon atoms in the radical-chain and physical properties has been considered as an additional model parameter. General Linear Model (GLM) analysis was run to estimate model performances. We found out, that a simple linear model with only four regressors (two dimensional structural code, number of C atoms in the radical-chain and the saturation pressure) yields satisfactory breakthrough time predictions. Therefore, this study shows that, for a given filter type and well defined testing conditions, satisfactory predictions of breakthrough times of organic vapours are feasible.
- PublicationAccès libreThe Characterization of Non-Porous Surfaces by Combination of the BET and the Dubinin-Radushkevich-Kaganer (DRK) Theories(2003)
;Hugi-Cleary, Deirdre ;Wermeille, Sandra
- PublicationAccès libreDubinin’s Theory: A Versatile Tool in Adsorption Science(1998)
; ;Lavanchy, A.Hugi-Cleary, DeirdreCe travail présente la théorie de Dubinin, ses conséquences en calorimétrie d'immersion ainsi que des développements recents. En particulier, la description des isothennes de type V par I'équation de Dubinin-Astakhov (vapeur d'eau sur les charbons actifs) et la combinaison avec la theorie de Myers et Prausnitz qui conduit à une description de l’adsorption multiple en régimes statique et dynamique. La théorie de Dubinin inclut également l’adsorption de vapeurs par certains solides non poreux., The paper presents the main features of Dubinin's theory for the volume-filling of micropores, its direct consequences in the field of immersion calorimelry and recent developments such as the possibility to describe type V isotherms (water on active carbons) with the Dubinin-Astakhov equation, and to deal with multiple adsorption under static and dynamic conditions. It also confirmed that in some cases Dubinin's theory applies to adsorption by non-porous surfaces.
- PublicationAccès librePhenol Adsorption from Dilute Aqueous Solutions by Carbons(2003)
;Fernandez, Elena ;Gotovac, Suzana ;Hugi-Cleary, Deirdre ;López-Ramón, M. V.
- PublicationAccès libreOn the Adsorption, by Activated Carbons, of Some Sparingly Soluble Organics from Aqueous Solutions(2005)
;Hugi-Cleary, Deirdre ;Slasli, AbdouActivated carbons play an important role in the purification of air and of water. Whereas vapors are adsorbed by a micropore filling process, the removal of sparingly soluble species such as phenol and its derivatives is limited to the coating of the effective surface of the material. This reduces considerably the sorptive capacity of a given carbon, and a suitable description is needed to predict the corresponding equilibrium. It is shown that, in the case of phenol, its derivatives, and a few typical pollutants, the latter process can be described by an extension of the Dubinin-Radushkevich-Kaganer (DRK) equation. A major advantage of this approach is the possibility of calculating the adsorption equilibrium based on simple physicochemical properties of the adsorptives and on the structural characteristics of the activated carbon. It also appears that, by analogy with adsorption in the vapor phase, a scaling factor can be introduced for adsorption from solution.
- PublicationAccès libreOn the use of standard DRK isotherms in Dubinin’s t/F method(2000)
;Hugi-Cleary, DeirdreIt is shown that the adsorption of benzene, carbon tetrachloride, dichloromethane and nitrogen by a typical non-porous carbon black follows the Dubinin–Radushkevich–Kaganer equation. The requirement for temperature invariance is fulfilled, with an average characteristic energy Eo=10.8 kJ mol−1. This expression is compared with the standard isotherms for benzene and carbon tetrachloride at 293 K proposed by Dubinin and used as a reference in the so-called t/F method, which leads to the non-porous surface area of active carbons. It appears that Dubinin’s isotherm contains inconsistencies, which are compensated for internally. Alternative DRK expressions, applicable to different vapours, are therefore proposed. The present study also shows the limits of Dubinin’s method with respect to comparison plots at higher relative pressures.
- PublicationAccès libreAdsorption of Phenol from Dilute and Concentrated Aqueous Solutions by Activated Carbons(2003)
;Fernandez, Elena ;Hugi-Cleary, Deirdre ;López-Ramón, M. VictoriaCombined calorimetric and adsorption techniques show that in the case of phenol adsorption from either dilute or concentrated aqueous solutions, water is always adsorbed preferentially by the oxygen-containing surface groups of the carbon. This reduces the surface and/or the micropore volume accessible to the phenol molecule and quantitatively explains the decrease in the limiting adsorption of phenol on a given carbon after oxidation. In the case of dilute solutions, as established earlier, the mechanism corresponds to the coating of the total surface (external surface and micropore walls) by a monolayer of phenol. On the other hand, for concentrated solutions (15−25% of water), one observes a process of micropore filling by phenol. Both mechanisms can be described in the framework of Dubinin's theory, which allows predictions based on simple physical and structural parameters.
- PublicationAccès librePore size distributions of active carbons assessed by different techniques(2000)
; ;Guillot, André ;Hugi-Cleary, DeirdreSlasli, Abdou
- PublicationAccès libreThe characterization of microporosity in carbons with molecular sieve effects(2002)
; ;Slasli, Abdou ;Hugi-Cleary, DeirdreGuillot, AndréThe apparent and the real micropore size distributions (PSDs) of molecular sieve carbons can be assessed by combining the adsorption of CO2 at 273 K with immersion calorimetry into liquids of increasing molecular dimensions. On the basis of model isotherms resulting from computer simulations, the adsorption of carbon dioxide, a relatively small probe, leads to the overall PSD of the carbon (essentially the internal micropore system). Immersion calorimetry, on the other hand, reveals the distribution of the pores accessible directly from the liquid phase, that is without constrictions. Liquid CS2 probes the same volume as CO2 and can be used as a reference. The paper describes the case of an industrial molecular sieve carbon obtained by blocking partly the entrance to a relatively broad micropore system, thus limiting its accessibility to molecules with diameters below 0.5–0.6 nm. It is shown how activation by steam at 900 °C removes the constrictions and leads to a gradual overlap of the two PSDs. The distribution of the pore widths on the surface, observed directly by scanning tunnelling microscopy, is also given.
- PublicationAccès libreThe characterisation of solids by adsorption and immersion techniques and by AFM/STM(1998)
; ;Hugi-Cleary, DeirdreCenteno, Teresa A.The surface of porous and non-porous solids can be characterised by a variety of techniques. Basic information is provided by the interpretation of adsorption isotherms, which can be combined with immersion calorimetry. Adsorption in micropores is described by Dubinin's theory, which applies to carbons, as well as other solids, but it appears that this theory can also be extended to non-porous solids. In this case, it takes the form of the Dubinin-Radushkevich and Kaganer (DRK) equation. For a number of systems, a good agreement is found with the BET method and the data obtained from vapour adsorption and from immersion calorimetry shows selfconsistency. The structural data derived from adsorption and immersion techniques is also compared with the direct observation of the surface by atomic force and scanning tunnelling microscopies. The relation with the fractal character D of a surface is also considered.