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- PublicationAccès libreSoil protistology rebooted: 30 fundamental questions to start with
;Geisen, Stefan ; ;Wilkinson, David M ;Adl, Sina ;Bonkowski, Michael ;Brown, Matthew W ;Fiore-Donno, Anna Maria ; ;Jassey, Vincent E.J ;Krashevska, Valentyna ;Lahr, Daniel J.G ;Marcisz, Katarzyna ; ;Payne, Richard ; ;Anderson, Roger O ;Charman, Dan J ;Ekelund, Flemming ;Griffiths, Bryan S ;Rønn, Regin ;Smirnov, Alexey ;Bass, David ; ;Berney, Cédric ; ;Blandenier, Quentin ;Chatzinotas, Antonis ;Clarholm, Marianne ;Dunthorn, Micah ;Feest, Alan ;Fernández, Leonardo D ;Foissner, Wilhelm ; ;Gentekaki, Eleni ;Hájek, Michal ;Helder, Johannes ;Jousset, Alexandre ;Koller, Robert ;Kumar, Santosh ;La Terza, Antonietta ;Lamentowicz, Mariusz ;Mazei, Yuri ;Santos, Susana S ;Seppey, Christophe V.W ;Spiegel, Frederick W ;Walochnik, Julia ;Winding, AnneProtists are the most diverse eukaryotes. These microbes are keystone organisms of soil ecosystems and regulate essential processes of soil fertility such as nutrient cycling and plant growth. Despite this, protists have received little scientific attention, especially compared to bacteria, fungi and nematodes in soil studies. Recent methodological advances, particularly in molecular biology techniques, have made the study of soil protists more accessible, and have created a resurgence of interest in soil protistology. This ongoing revolution now enables comprehensive investigations of the structure and functioning of soil protist communities, paving the way to a new era in soil biology. Instead of providing an exhaustive review, we provide a synthesis of research gaps that should be prioritized in future studies of soil protistology to guide this rapidly developing research area. Based on a synthesis of expert opinion we propose 30 key questions covering a broad range of topics including evolution, phylogenetics, functional ecology, macroecology, paleoecology, and methodologies. These questions highlight a diversity of topics that will establish soil protistology as a hub discipline connecting different fundamental and applied fields such as ecology, biogeography, evolution, plant-microbe interactions, agronomy, and conservation biology. We are convinced that soil protistology has the potential to be one of the most exciting frontiers in biology.
- PublicationAccès libreBio-inoculation of yerba mate seedlings (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hill.) with native plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria: a sustainable alternative to improve crop yieldIn this study, the role of native plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) as bio-inoculants was assessed as an alternative to ameliorate Ilex paraguariensis St. Hill. growth in nursery comparing poorer (soil) versus richer (compost) substrates. Twelve rhizospheric strains isolated from yerba mate plantations were evaluated in vitro for their potential as PGPRs. Three isolates, identified as Kosakonia radicincitans YD4, Rhizobium pusense YP3, and Pseudomonas putida YP2, were selected on the basis of their N2 fixation activity, IAA-like compound and siderophore production, and phosphate solubilization. A highly significant positive effect of bio-inoculation with the native isolates was observed in 5-month-old seedlings cultivated in soil. The highest increase was observed in seedlings inoculated with K. radicincitans YD4 with an increase of 183 % in the dry shoot weight and a 30 % increase in shoot N content. In contrast, in compost, no increment in the dry weight was observed; however, an increase in content in some macronutrients in shoots was observed. Remarkably, when plant biomass was compared between soil and compost, seedlings inoculated with K. radicincitans YD4 in soil produced the highest yields, even though higher yields could be expected in compost due to the richness of this substrate. In conclusion, bio-inoculation of yerba mate seedlings with native PGPR increases the yield of this crop in nursery and could represent a promising sustainable strategy to improve yerba mate growth in low-fertility soils.
- PublicationAccès libreA worldwide survey of neonicotinoids in honeyGrowing evidence for global pollinator decline is causing concern for biodiversity conservation and ecosystem services maintenance. Neonicotinoid pesticides have been identified or suspected as a key factor responsible for this decline. We assessed the global exposure of pollinators to neonicotinoids by analyzing 198 honey samples from across the world. We found at least one of five tested compounds (acetamiprid, clothianidin, imidacloprid, thiacloprid, and thiamethoxam) in 75% of all samples, 45% of samples contained two or more of these compounds, and 10% contained four or five. Our results confirm the exposure of bees to neonicotinoids in their food throughout the world. The coexistence of neonicotinoids and other pesticides may increase harm to pollinators. However, the concentrations detected are below the maximum residue level authorized for human consumption (average ± standard error for positive samples: 1.8 ± 0.56 nanograms per gram).
- PublicationMétadonnées seulementEffects of decomposing cadavers on soil nematode communities over a one-year periodIn terrestrial ecosystems decomposing cadavers act as resource patches affecting nutrient cycling and soil communities, but the effects on soil communities are not well known. In this study we investigated nematode community response to decomposing pig cadavers (Sus scrofa) over a one-year period. As nematodes play key roles in soil food webs and are known to respond to disturbances and nutrient enrichment, we hypothesised that they would respond to decomposing cadavers and that this response would change over time. We compared the temporal patterns of nematode density and community structure under pig cadavers, either placed directly on the ground or hung 1 m aboveground (for effects of cadaveric fluids only), with two controls, i.e., bare soil and bags filled with soil placed on the ground (fake pigs e for microclimatic effects only). In the control and fake pig treatments nematode densities, community patterns and maturity indices did not change significantly. In contrast, density increased significantly underneath the ground and hanging pigs two weeks after the beginning of the experiment, and nematode family richness, Simpson diversity and maturity index were sgnificantly reduced in the cadaver treatments. Most nematode families responded negatively to cadavers with the notable exceptions of Rhabditidae, Neodiplogasteridae and Diplogasteroididae. The latter two were found exclusively underneath the decomposing cadavers and are promising bioindicators of vertebrate cadaver decomposition. Even though diversity, density and communities were recovering after one year, the impact of cadavers was still significant for the maturity index. These contrasting patterns illustrate how decomposing cadavers contribute to increasing local biodiversity and suggest that soil nematodes could be used as a tool to document the presence of a decomposing cadaver, or to estimate the time elapsed since death (post-mortem interval). Patterns should, however, be compared in different settings and seasons before such a tool can be validated.
- PublicationAccès libreEnvironmental DNA COI barcoding for quantitative analysis of protists communities: A test using the Nebela collaris complex (Amoebozoa;Arcellinida; Hyalospheniidae)Environmental DNA surveys are used for screening eukaryotic diversity. However, it is unclear how quantitative this approach is and to what extent results from environmental DNA studies can be used for ecological studies requiring quantitative data. Mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase (COI) is used for species-level taxonomic studies of testate amoebae and should allow assessing the community composition from environmental samples, thus bypassing biases due to morphological identification. We tested this using a COI clone library approach and focusing on the Nebela collaris complex. Comparisons with direct microscopy counts showed that the COI clone library diversity data matched the morphologically identified taxa, and that community com-position estimates using the two approaches were similar. However, this correlation was improved when microscopy counts were corrected for biovolume. Higher correlation with biovolume-corrected community data suggests that COI clone library data matches the ratio of mitochondria and that within closely-related taxa the density of mitochondria per unit biovolume is approximately constant. Further developments of this metabarcoding approach including quantifying the mitochondrial density among closely-related taxa, experiments on other taxonomic groups and using high throughput sequencing should make if possible to quantitatively estimate community composition of different groups, which would be invaluable for microbial food webs studies.
- PublicationAccès libreCreation of a raised bog in the Botanical garden of Neuchâtel: a tool for research, collections and public informationIn September 2014 we created a small raised bog of ca. 100m2 in the Botanical garden of Neuchâtel. The material (marl and peat) was collected from a degraded peatland in an industrial area of the region. The bog was planted with over 30 species of mosses and vascular plants collected from bogs in the Jura Mountains and from existing collections.
This object corresponds to the three missions of the garden : 1) to inform the public as well as students about these unusual, fragile and threatened ecosystems, 2) to present characteristic peatland plants from the Jura Mountains (Sphagnum, Drosera, Eriophorum, Betula nana, etc.), and 3) to conduct research projects.
During the winter 2014-15, the snow remained longer on the peatbog that on the adjacent path and meadow, thus providing evidence for a microclimatic effect of the bog. The excessively dry and hot summer 2015 allowed testing the resistance of the newly established bog vegetation. Most plants resisted well, including graminoids Eriophorum vaginatum, Trichophorum cespitosum or Carex sp., ericaceous (Vaccinium oxycoccos, myrtillus and vitis-idea) and mosses (especially Sphagnum). This living laboratory provides a unique opportunity to inform the public about the characteristics and functions of these ecosystems and the challenges of conserving and restoring them in a warmer world.
- PublicationAccès libreEukaryotic plankton diversity in the sunlit ocean
;de Vargas, Colomban ;Audic, Stéphane ;Henry, Nicolas ;Decelle, Johan ;Mahé, Frédéric ;Logares, Ramiro ; ;Berney, Cédric ;Le Bescot, Noan ;Probert, Ian ;Carmichael, Margaux ;Poulain, Julie ;Romac, Sarah ;Colin, Sébastien ;Aury, Jean-Marc ;Bittner, Lucie ;Chaffron, Samuel ;Dunthorn, Micah ;Engelen, Stefan ;Flegontova, Olga ;Guidi, Lionel ;Horák, Aleš ;Jaillon, Olivier ;Lima-Mendez, Gipsi ;Lukeš, Julius ;Malviya, Shruti ;Morard, Raphael ; ;Scalco, Eleonora ;Siano, Raffaele ;Vincent, Flora ;Zingone, Adriana ;Dimier, Céline ;Picheral, Marc ;Searson, Sarah ;Kandels-Lewis, Stefanie ;Acinas, Silvia G ;Bork, Peer ;Bowler, Chris ;Gorsky, Gabriel ;Grimsley, Nigel ;Hingamp, Pascal ;Iudicone, Daniele ;Not, Fabrice ;Ogata, Hiroyuki ;Pesant, Stephane ;Raes, Jeroen ;Sieracki, Michael E ;Speich, Sabrina ;Stemmann, Lars ;Sunagawa, Shinichi ;Weissenbach, Jean ;Wincker, PatrickKarsenti, EricMarine plankton support global biological and geochemical processes. Surveys of their biodiversity have hitherto been geographically restricted and have not accounted for the full range of plankton size.We assessed eukaryotic diversity from 334 size-fractionated photic-zone plankton communities collected across tropical and temperate oceans during the circumglobal Tara Oceans expedition.We analyzed 18S ribosomal DNA sequences across the intermediate plankton-size spectrum from the smallest unicellular eukaryotes (protists, >0.8 micrometers) to small animals of a few millimeters. Eukaryotic ribosomal diversity saturated at ∼150,000 operational taxonomic units, about one-third of which could not be assigned to known eukaryotic groups. Diversity emerged at all taxonomic levels, both within the groups comprising the ∼11,200 cataloged morphospecies of eukaryotic plankton and among twice as many other deep-branching lineages of unappreciated importance in plankton ecology studies. Most eukaryotic plankton biodiversity belonged to heterotrophic protistan groups, particularly those known to be parasites or symbiotic hosts.
- PublicationAccès libreResponse of Sphagnum Testate Amoebae to Drainage, Subsequent Re-wetting and Associated Changes in the Moss Carpet: Results from a Three Year Mesocosm ExperimentSphagnum peatlands represent a globally significant pool and sink of carbon but these functions are threatened by ongoing climate change. Testate amoebae are useful bioindicators of hydrological changes, but little experimental work has been done on the impact of water table changes on communities.
Using a mesocosm experimental setting that was previously used to assess the impact of drought disturbance on communities and ecosystem processes with three contrasted water table positions: wet (–4 cm), intermediate (–15 cm) and dry (–25 cm), we studied the capacity of testate amoeba communities to recover when the water table was kept at –10 cm for all plots. The overall experiment lasted three years. We assessed the taxonomic and functional trait responses of testate amoeba communities. The selected traits were hypothesised to be correlated to moisture content (response traits: shell size, aperture position) or trophic role (effect traits: mixotrophy, aperture size controlling prey range).
During the disturbance phase, the mixotrophic species Hyalosphenia papilio dominated the wet and intermediate plots, while the community shifted to a dominance of “dry indicators” (Corythion dubium, Nebela tincta, Cryptodifflugia oviformis) and corresponding traits (loss of mixotrophy, and dominance of smaller taxa with ventral or ventral-central aperture) in dry plots. During the recovery phase we observed two contrasted trends in the previously wet and intermediate plots: communities remained similar where the Sphagnum carpet remained intact but species and traits indicators of drier conditions increased in plots where it had degraded. In the former dry plots, indicators and traits of wet conditions increased by the end of the experiment.
This is one of the first experiment simulating a disturbance and subsequent recovery in ex-situ mesocosms of Sphagnum peatland focusing on the response of testate amoebae community structure as well as functional traits to water table manipulation. The results generally confirmed that testate amoebae respond within a few months to hydrological changes and thus represent useful bioindicators for assessing current and past hydrological changes in Sphagnum peatlands.
- PublicationAccès libreAssessing the responses of Sphagnum micro-eukaryotes to climate changes using high throughput sequencingCurrent projections suggest that climate warming will be accompanied by more frequent and severe drought events. Peatlands store ca. one third of the world’s soil organic carbon. Warming and drought may cause peatlands to become carbon sources through stimulation of microbial activity increasing ecosystem respiration, with positive feedback effect on global warming. Micro-eukaryotes play a key role in the carbon cycle through food web interactions and therefore, alterations in their community structure and diversity may affect ecosystem functioning and could reflect these changes. We assessed the diversity and community composition of Sphagnum-associated eukaryotic microorganisms inhabiting peatlands and their response to experimental drought and warming using high throughput sequencing of environmental DNA. Under drier conditions, micro-eukaryotic diversity decreased, the relative abundance of autotrophs increased and that of osmotrophs (including Fungi and Peronosporomycetes) decreased. Furthermore, we identified climate change indicators that could be used as early indicators of change in peatland microbial communities and ecosystem functioning. The changes we observed indicate a shift towards a more “terrestrial” community in response to drought, in line with observed changes in the functioning of the ecosystem.