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- PublicationAccès libreExperimental evaluation of a distributed Brillouin sensing system for measuring extensional and shear deformation in rock(2015-9)
;Madjdabadi, B. ; ;Dusseault, M.B.Kaiser, P.K.Distributed Brillouin sensing systems (DBSs) have growing applications in engineering and are attracting attention in the field of underground structures, including mining. The capability for continuous measurements of strain over large distances makes DBSs a promising monitoring approach for understanding deformation field evolution within a rock mass, particularly when the sensor is installed away from excavation damaged zone (EDZ). A purpose-built fiber optic sensing cable, a vital component of DBSs, was assessed in laboratory conditions. A test program was performed to observe DBSs response to various perturbations including strain and joint movements, including opening and shearing of joints. These tests included assessment of the strain-free cable response and the application of extensional and lateral displacement to various sensing cable lengths (strained lengths), from 1 m down to 1 cm. Furthermore, tests were done to evaluate the time-dependent behavior of the cable and to observe the effect of strain transfer using a soft host material (e.g. a soft grout) under lateral displacement. The noise level of the DBSs range was ±77 le, determined through repeated measurements on an unstrained cable. Stretching test results showed a clear linear correlation between applied strain and Brillouin frequency shift change for all strained lengths above half the spatial resolution of the DBSs. However, for strained lengths shorter than half the spatial resolution, no strain response was measurable and this is due to the applied internal signal processing of the DBSs to detect peak Brillouin gain spectrum and noise level. The stability with time of the measurements was excellent for test periods up to 15 h. Lateral displacement test results showed a less consistent response compared to tension tests for a given applied displacement. Although the Brillouin frequency shift change is correlated linearly with the applied displacement in tension, it shows a parabolic variation with lateral displacement. Moreover, the registered frequency response (correlated with strain) of the system decreased significantly when the sensing cable was embedded in a sand-filled tube compared with direct cable displacement.
- PublicationAccès libreExperimental evaluation of a distributed Brillouin sensing system for detection of relative movement of rock blocks in underground mining(2017)
;Madjdabadi, B. ; ;Dusseault, M.B.Kaiser, P.K.Underground mining in highly stressed, hard rock masses is commonly accompanied by seismic events that are located close to mining, near active stopes and other excavations, most frequently within one diameter of the excavation boundary. However, as the extraction ratio increases or mines progress to greater depths, remote events have been observed at large distances from active mining, where the direct mining related stress changes are negligible. Events in different mining blocks cannot be explained by models involving stress redistribution processes alone.