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  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Evidence of joint commitment in great apes' natural joint actions.
    (2021-12-01T00:00:00Z) ; ; ; ;
    Rossano, Federico
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    Pajot, Aude
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    Guéry, Jean-Pascal
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    Human joint action seems special, as it is grounded in joint commitment-a sense of mutual obligation participants feel towards each other. Comparative research with humans and non-human great apes has typically investigated joint commitment by experimentally interrupting joint actions to study subjects' resumption strategies. However, such experimental interruptions are human-induced, and thus the question remains of how great apes naturally handle interruptions. Here, we focus on naturally occurring interruptions of joint actions, grooming and play, in bonobos and chimpanzees. Similar to humans, both species frequently resumed interrupted joint actions (and the previous behaviours, like grooming the same body part region or playing the same play type) with their previous partners and at the previous location. Yet, the probability of resumption attempts was unaffected by social bonds or rank. Our data suggest that great apes experience something akin to joint commitment, for which we discuss possible evolutionary origins.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Assessing joint commitment as a process in great apes.
    (2021-08-20T00:00:00Z) ; ; ; ; ;
    Pajot, Aude
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    Perrenoud, Laura
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    Guéry, Jean-Pascal
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    Rossano, Federico
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    Many social animals interact jointly, but only humans experience a specific sense of obligation toward their co-participants, a . However, joint commitment is not only a mental state but also a that reveals itself in the coordination efforts deployed during entry and exit phases of joint action. Here, we investigated the presence and duration of such phases in  = 1,242 natural play and grooming interactions of captive chimpanzees and bonobos. The apes frequently exchanged mutual gaze and communicative signals prior to and after engaging in joint activities with conspecifics, demonstrating entry and exit phases comparable to those of human joint activities. Although rank effects were less clear, phases in bonobos were more moderated by friendship compared to phases in chimpanzees, suggesting bonobos were more likely to reflect patterns analogous to human "face management". This suggests that joint commitment as process was already present in our last common ancestor with .
  • Publication
    Accès libre
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Referential adjustment during discourse production in Alzheimer's disease
    (2020-8-11) ; ;
    Achim, Amélie
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    Démonet, Jean-François
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    Several studies have shown that people with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) tend to use more pronouns than healthy aged adults when referring to entities during discourse. This referential behavior has been associated with the decrease of cognitive abilities, such as lexical retrieval difficulties or reduced abilities in working memory. However, the influence of certain important discourse factors on the referential choices made by people with AD has yet to be established. This study examines referential choices made at three discourse stages during narrative discourse (the introduction of a referent, the maintaining of the referent in focus, and the shift from one referent in focus to another). These referential choices are examined in increasingly complex referential contexts. In addition, this study investigates the relationships between referential choices and various cognitive abilities. To do so, the narrative discourses of 21 people with AD and 21 healthy adults were elicited using a newly developed storytelling in sequence task. The analyses focused on the production of three major referential expressions (indefinite expressions, definite expressions and pronouns) which are expected to vary according to discourse stage and the referential complexity of the stories. The results show that AD participants produce significantly fewer of the referential expressions expected at the introduction and shift stages than healthy aged adults produce. Nevertheless, the variation in the categories of referential expressions produced by the AD participants between the discourse stages is similar to that produced by the healthy aged adults, suggesting a preserved sensitivity to the factors manipulated in the task (i.e., discourse stages and referential complexity). This study also highlights the fact that different cognitive competences, especially executive abilities, are greatly involved in referential choices. The results add further evidence that referential choices rely on a variety of cognitive skills, depending on the discourse context in which they are made.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Trajectories of drug use among French young people: Prototypical stages of involvement in illicit drug use
    (2016)
    Baggio, Stéphanie
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    Spilka, Stanislas
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    Studer, Joseph
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    Gmel, Gerhard
    Aims: This study investigated patterns and trajectories of substance use, with a special focus on illicit drugs other than cannabis. It examined both patterns and trajectories of use among a general population-based sample. Methods: We used data from the 2011 French ESCAPAD survey of French 17-year-olds to assess exposure and age of initiation of 14 licit and illicit drugs (N=23,882). Latent class analysis (LCA) and survival analyses were performed. Results: The results of the LCA showed that patterns of illicit drug use clearly distinguished between two groups of other illicit drugs: 1) amphetamines/speed, cocaine, ecstasy/MDMA, magic mushrooms, poppers, and solvents; 2) crack/freebase, GHB/GBL, heroine, LSD, and ketamine. Survival analyses highlighted that trajectories involved the first group before the second one. Conclusions: Prototypical drug use patterns and trajectories should include a distinction between two groups of illicit drugs. Preventive actions should focus on young people in their early teens, since very young users are more likely to progress to illicit drug use, and further studies should include this distinction instead of aggregating other illicit drugs into a single category.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Feasibility, Acceptability, and Preliminary Effects of Educational Intervention to Strengthen Humanistic Practice Among Hemodialysis Nurses in the Canton of Vaud, Switzerland: A Pilot Study
    (2016)
    Delmas, Philippe
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    O’Reilly, Louise
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    Cara, Chantal
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    Burnier, Michel
    A mixed-design pilot study was undertaken to examine the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary effects of an educational intervention based on the theory of human caring delivered to hemodialysis (HD) nurses in Switzerland. Participants were 9 nurses and 22 patients undergoing HD. Results showed that the proposed intervention had a high level of feasibility and acceptability. Following the intervention, participating nurses consolidated their caring attitudes/behaviours toward patients undergoing HD. The patients, for their part, perceived significant changes in the nurses' caring attitudes/behaviours following the intervention. Further research is needed to examine its effects on a larger population of nurses and patients.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Screening of mental health and substance users in frequent users of a general Swiss emergency department
    (2015)
    Vu, Francis
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    Daeppen, Jean-Bernard
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    Hugli, Olivier
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    Stucki, Stephanie
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    Paroz, Sophie
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    Canepa Allen, Marina
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    Bodenmann, Patrick
    Background
    The objectives of this study were to determine the proportions of psychiatric and substance use disorders suffered by emergency departments’ (EDs’) frequent users compared to the mainstream ED population, to evaluate how effectively these disorders were diagnosed in both groups of patients by ED physicians, and to determine if these disorders were predictive of a frequent use of ED services.
    Methods This study is a cross-sectional study with concurrent and retrospective data collection. Between November 2009 and June 2010, patients’ mental health and substance use disorders were identified prospectively in face-to-face research interviews using a screening questionnaire (i.e. researcher screening). These data were compared to the data obtained from a retrospective medical chart review performed in August 2011, searching for mental health and substance use disorders diagnosed by ED physicians and recorded in the patients’ ED medical files (i.e. ED physician diagnosis). The sample consisted of 399 eligible adult patients (≥18 years old) admitted to the urban, general ED of a University Hospital. Among them, 389 patients completed the researcher screening. Two hundred and twenty frequent users defined by >4 ED visits in the previous twelve months were included and compared to 169 patients with ≤4 ED visits in the same period (control group).
    Results Researcher screening showed that ED frequent users were more likely than members of the control group to have an anxiety, depressive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), or suffer from alcohol, illicit drug abuse/addiction. Reviewing the ED physician diagnosis, we found that the proportions of mental health and substance use disorders diagnosed by ED physicians were low both among ED frequent users and in the control group. Using multiple logistic regression analyses to predict frequent ED use, we found that ED patients who screened positive for psychiatric disorders only and those who screened positive for both psychiatric and substance use disorders were more likely to be ED frequent users compared to ED patients with no disorder.
    Conclusions This study found high proportions of screened mental health and/or substance use disorders in ED frequent users, but it showed low rates of detection of such disorders in day-to-day ED activities which can be a cause for concern. Active screening for these disorders in this population, followed by an intervention and/or a referral for treatment by a case-management team may constitute a relevant intervention for integration into a general ED setting.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Associations between perceived discrimination and health status among frequent Emergency Department users
    (2015)
    Baggio, Stéphanie
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    Hugli, Olivier
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    Burnand, Bernard, Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine (IUMSP), Lausanne University Hospital, Lausanne, Switzerland
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    Ruggeri, Ornella
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    Wasserfallen, Jean-Blaise
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    Moschetti, Karine
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    Staeger, Philippe
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    Alary, Séverine
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    Canepa Allen, Marina
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    Daeppen, Jean-Bernard
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    Bodenmann, Patrick
    Objective : Frequent Emergency Department (ED) users are vulnerable individuals and discrimination is usually associated with increased vulnerability. The aim of this study was to investigate frequent ED users' perceptions of discrimination and to test whether they were associated with increased vulnerability.
    Methods : In total, 250 adult frequent ED users were interviewed in Lausanne University Hospital. From a previously published questionnaire, we assessed 15 dichotomous sources of perceived discrimination. Vulnerability was assessed using health status: objective health status (evaluation by a healthcare practitioner including somatic, mental health, behavioral, and social issues - dichotomous variables) and subjective health status [self-evaluation including health-related quality of life (WHOQOL) and quality of life (EUROQOL) - mean-scores]. We computed the prevalence rates of perceived discrimination and tested associations between perceived discrimination and health status (Fischer's exact tests, Mann-Whitney U-tests).
    Results : A total of 35.2% of the frequent ED users surveyed reported at least one source of perceived discrimination. Objective health status was not significantly related to perceived discrimination. In contrast, experiencing perceived discrimination was associated with worse subjective health status (P<0.001).
    Conclusion : Frequent ED users are highly likely to report perceived discrimination during ED use, and this was linked to a decrease in their own rating of their health. Hence, discrimination should be taken into account when providing care to such users as it may constitute an additional risk factor for this vulnerable population. Perceived discrimination may also be of concern to professionals seeking to improve practices and provide optimal care to frequent ED users.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Rhinopharyngeal autologous fat injection for treatment of velopharyngeal insufficiency in patients with cleft palate
    (2015)
    Piotet, Elsa
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    Beguin, Céline
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    Broome, Martin
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    Olivier, Frédéric
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    Leuchter, Igor
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    Zbinden, Chantal
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    Hohlfeld, Judith
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    de Buys Roessingh, Anthony
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    Schweizer, Valérie
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    Pasche, Philippe
    Patients with cleft palate are prone to velopharyngeal insufficiency. In minor cases or when hypernasal speech does not resolve after velopharyngoplasty, an augmentation pharyngoplasty with autologous fat can be proposed. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the short-term (within 2 months) and long-term efficiency (during the 24 months following the procedure) of our procedure in the setting of velopharyngeal insufficiency related to a cleft palate. Twenty-two patients with cleft palate related velopharyngeal insufficiency were included in this retrospective study. All patients were operated following the same technique, in the same institution. The pre- and postoperative evaluations included a nasometry, a subjective evaluation using the Borel-Maisonny score, and a nasofibroscopy to assess the degree of velopharyngeal closure. Scores of Borel-Maisonny and nasometry were compared before, shortly after the procedure (within 2 months) and long term after the procedure (within 24 months). Forty-one procedures in 22 patients with a cleft palate performed in our institution between October 2004 and January 2012 were included in the study. Nine patients had a previous velopharyngoplasty with persistent rhinolalia despite intensive speech therapy. In 14 patients the procedure was repeated because of recurrent hypernasal speech after the first injection. The average number of procedures per patient was 1.8. Postoperative nasometry and Borel-Maisonny scores were statistically significantly improved and remained stable until the end of the follow-up (median 42 months postoperative) in most patients. Complications were rare and minor. Autologous fat injection is a simple procedure for treatment of minor velopharyngeal insufficiencies in patients with cleft palate, with good long-term results and few complications.