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  • Publication
    Accès libre
    From capital landing to urban anchoring: The negotiated City
    This article proposes three ideal types of ‘anchoring of finance capital into the city’, i.e. the way in which capital, as it is valued in financial markets, is transformed into real capital and vice versa. Some contexts will allow market finance s visions of the city to become reality without great alteration, and this produces the ‘financialised city’. In this case, the value of the city corresponds to trading on the financial markets and largely depends on the financial operators’ comparative and mimetic criteria. Second, the ‘entrepreneurial city’ corresponds to a tangible and localised vision of the city, outside the trading rooms. This requires interactions between intermediary and allied actors so that urban value can be translated into real profits and tangible urban objectives while mobilising market finance. Third, some contexts may promote debate, the creation of interdependencies and the genesis of multiple externalities, particularly around major urban development projects. This is what we call the ‘negotiated city’. Here, urban value depends much more directly, and more exclusively, on more or less complementary interactions between local and non-local actors, users, consumers, public actors, tourists, etc.