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  • Publication
    Accès libre
    What does "lignoform" really mean?
    (2018-9-6) ;
    Fatton, Vincent
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    Sartori, Luna
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    ;
    Among the many studies devoted to deadwood, very few have considered it in a broader ecosystemic context, especially in relation to the underlying humiferous topsoil. In order to fill this gap, we detail here the concept of lignoforms, humus forms strongly linked to deadwood and mostly ignored by humus forms specialists. After presenting the main characteristics of deadwood, the main actors involved in its life cycle and its important and varied roles in many ecosystems, we explain how to describe and study lignoforms. We also propose new diagnostic horizons for these particular humus forms, as well as a classification system, including an identification key (see Appendix A Identification key for lignoforms). Finally, we discuss some important issues pertinent to continuing to improve knowledge of these common but little studied humus forms.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Terrestrial humus systems and forms - Keys of classification of humus systems and forms
    (2018-1-16)
    Zanella, Augusto
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    Ponge, J.-F
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    Jabiol, B
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    Sartori, G
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    Kolb, Eckart
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    ; ;
    Aubert, Mickael
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    De Waal, R
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    Van Delft, B
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    Vacca, Andrea
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    Serra, Gianluca
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    Chersich, Silvia
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    Andreatta, Anna
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    Kolli, Raimo
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    Brun, Jean-Jacques
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    Cools, Nathalie
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    Englisch, M
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    Hager, Herbert
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    Katzensteiner, Klaus
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    Brêthes, Alain
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    De Nicola, Cristina
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    Testi, Anna
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    Bernier, Nicolas
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    Graefe, Ulfert
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    Wolf, Ugo
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    Juilleret, Jérôme
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    Garlato, Adriano
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    Obber, Silvia
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    Galvan, Paola
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    Zampedri, Roberto
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    Frizerra, Lorenzo
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    Tomasi, Mauro
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    Banas, Damien
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    Bureau, Fabrice
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    ;
    Salmon, Sandrine
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    Menardi, Roberto
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    Fontanella, Fausto
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    Carraro, Vinicio
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    Pizzeghello, Diego
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    Concheri, Giuseppe
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    Squartini, Andrea
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    Cattaneo, Dina
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    Scattolin, Linda
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    Nardi, Serenella
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    Nicolini, Gianni
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    Viola, Franco
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Terrestrial humus systems and forms - Specific terms and diagnostic horizons
    (2018-1-16)
    Zanella, Augusto
    ;
    Ponge, J.-F
    ;
    Jabiol, B
    ;
    Sartori, G
    ;
    Kolb, Eckart
    ;
    ; ;
    Aubert, Mickael
    ;
    De Waal, R
    ;
    Van Delft, B
    ;
    Vacca, Andrea
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    Serra, Gianluca
    ;
    Chersich, Silvia
    ;
    Andreatta, Anna
    ;
    Cools, Nathalie
    ;
    Englisch, M
    ;
    Hager, Herbert
    ;
    Katzensteiner, Klaus
    ;
    Brêthes, Alain
    ;
    De Nicola, Cristina
    ;
    Testi, Anna
    ;
    Bernier, Nicolas
    ;
    Graefe, Ulfert
    ;
    Juilleret, Jérôme
    ;
    Banas, Damien
    ;
    Garlato, Adriano
    ;
    Obber, Silvia
    ;
    Galvan, Paola
    ;
    Zampedri, Roberto
    ;
    Frizerra, Lorenzo
    ;
    Tomasi, Mauro
    ;
    Menardi, Roberto
    ;
    Fontanella, Fausto
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    Filoso, Carmen
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    Dibona, Raffaella
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    Bolzonella, Cristian
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    Pizzeghello, Diego
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    Carletti, Paolo
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    Langhor, Roger
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    Cattaneo, Dina
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    Nardi, Serenella
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    Nicolini, Gianni
    ;
    Viola, Franco
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Are urban soils similar to natural soils of river valleys?
    Purpose Urban soils and soils of river valleys are constituted of heterogeneous materials that have been manipulated, disturbed or transported at different spatial and temporal scales. Despite these similarities, little is known about soil evolution in urban soils and their comparison with natural soils remains therefore highly useful. We hypothesized that, according to their degree of perturbation, urban soils and natural soils of river valleys have similar soil processes related to their structure, physical and chemical characteristics. Materials and methods Using a synchronic approach, we compared two soil gradients, one located in the natural reserve of the Allondon River (canton of Geneva, Switzerland) and the other in and around the city of Neuchâtel, Switzerland. A total of five alluvial and 18 urban soil profiles were described according to vegetation type and alluvial terraces formed at different distances from the river for the river valley ecosystem and to soil age for the urban ecosystem. Correlations between soil gradients and classical physical (soil depth, particle-size distribution, coarse fraction) and chemical (Corg, pHH2O, Ptot, Ntot, CaCO3, CEC and C/N ratio) parameters of soils were first tested in order to identify similarities and differences among soil gradients. Data of soil properties were then clustered hierarchically in order to identify soil group classification. Results and discussion Our results showed similarities and differences between soil gradients. In the urban context, soil thickness was positively correlated to soil age, while the coarse fraction, sand content and C/N were negatively correlated to soil age gradient. In soils of the river valley, most of the chemical variables were either negatively (pHH2O and CaCO3) or positively (CEC, Corg and Ntot) correlated to soil distance from the river. These differences between gradients can be mainly explained by parent material, depositional conditions and land use which can influence soil processes. However, alluvial soils were well clustered with two identified urban soil groups according to soil maturity. Evolved alluvial soils far from the river were grouped with natural and near natural urban soils. Conversely, “young” perturbed alluvial soils were most clustered with human-made soils. Conclusions From the two selected soil gradients, soils on alluvial sediments are similar to urban soils in some characteristics. However, parent material, depositional conditions and soil and vegetation interactions on soil processes (e.g. matter cycle, energy flux) still need more investigation. This study contributes to the development of a natural soil reference for urban soils.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Effects of endogeic earthworms on the soil organic matter dynamics and the soil structure in urban and alluvial soil materials
    Earthworms are considered as key actors of soil processes at different spatial and temporal scales and provide essential ecosystem services linked to climate regulation or primary production. However, little is known about their basic functional roles (e.g. organic matter decomposition, soil structuring processes) in perturbed systems such as urban or alluvial soils. Alluvial soils are characterized by regular physical perturbation through flooding and associated erosion/sedimentation processes which are rather similar to perturbations (e.g. temporal instability, spatial heterogeneity) affecting urban soils. Due to their close soil characteristics, we hypothesized that in both cases, soil functioning is similarwith respect to soil fauna activity. Under controlled conditions, our objective was to investigate the effects of two endogeic earthworm species, Allolobophora chlorotica (pink morph) and Aporrectodea rosea (the two most abundant species found in the studied urban site), on soil organic matter (SOM) dynamics and soil structure (network of earthworm burrows) comparing an urban and an alluvial soil. We investigated the growth of individuals (weight gain and reproduction success) and assessed their effects on SOMdecomposition (cumulative C–CO2 emission, nitrogen and phosphorus mineralization) and soil structure (macroporosity, total length and connectivity of segments) after one and three months of incubation. Our results showed higher growth of A. rosea in the alluvial soil compared to the urban soil. However, the total length of burrows, carbon and nitrogen mineralization were often higher in the urban soil especially when the two species were combined. This trend can be mainly explained by lower organic matter content found in the urban soil whichmay influence positively the burrowing activity and negatively the growth of earthworms. Endogeic earthworms appear a key feature of the soil functioning in the urban context through their roles on organic matter transformation, the formation and maintenance of the soil structure.
  • Publication
    Métadonnées seulement
    Factors modulating cottongrass seedling growth stimulation to enhanced nitrogen and carbon dioxide: compensatory tradeoffs in leaf dynamics and allocation to meet potassium-limited growth
    (2013)
    Siegenthaler, Andy
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    Buttler, Alexandre
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    Grosvernier, Philippe
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    Nilsson, Mats B.
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    Eriophorum vaginatum is a characteristic species of northern peatlands and a keystone plant for cutover bog restoration. Understanding the factors affecting E. vaginatum seedling establishment (i.e. growth dynamics and allocation) under global change has practical implications for the management of abandoned mined bogs and restoration of their C-sequestration function. We studied the responses of leaf dynamics, above- and belowground biomass production of establishing seedlings to elevated CO2 and N. We hypothesised that nutrient factors such as limitation shifts or dilutions would modulate growth stimulation. Elevated CO2 did not affect biomass, but increased the number of young leaves in spring (+400 %), and the plant vitality (i.e. number of green leaves/total number of leaves) (+3 %), both of which were negatively correlated to [K+] in surface porewater, suggesting a K-limited production of young leaves. Nutrient ratios in green leaves indicated either N and K co-limitation or K limitation. N addition enhanced the number of tillers (+38 %), green leaves (+18 %), aboveground and belowground biomass (+99, +61 %), leaf mass-to-length ratio (+28 %), and reduced the leaf turnover (-32 %). N addition enhanced N availability and decreased [K+] in spring surface porewater. Increased tiller and leaf production in July were associated with a doubling in [K+] in surface porewater suggesting that under enhanced N production is K driven. Both experiments illustrate the importance of tradeoffs in E. vaginatum growth between: (1) producing tillers and generating new leaves, (2) maintaining adult leaves and initiating new ones, and (3) investing in basal parts (corms) for storage or in root growth for greater K uptake. The K concentration in surface porewater is thus the single most important factor controlling the growth of E. vaginatum seedlings in the regeneration of selected cutover bogs.