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- PublicationMétadonnées seulementEffects of elevated atmospheric CO2 and mineral nitrogen deposition on litter quality, bioleaching and decomposition in a sphagnum peat bogA brief overview of an attempt to link the effect of elevated CO2 and nitrogen deposition on litter quality and decomposition in a Sphagnum peat bog is given. Litter of three common species (Eriophorum vaginatum, Polytrichum strictum and Sphagnum fallax) was collected from field plots after two years of pre-treatment in two parallel experiments: a) Elevated atmospheric CO2 experiment, b) mineral nitrogen fertilisation experiment. The litters were put into litterbags, leached and inserted into field plots for 3 months, where they decomposed under specific treatment. Distinction between effects of initial litter quality and decomposition on mass loss in the bioleaching and/or in field decomposition process could be tested using a particular set-up in which cross-effects of pre-treatment and treatment were considered.
- PublicationMétadonnées seulementEffects of elevated CO2 and nitrogen deposition on natural regeneration processes of cut-over ombrotrophic peat bogs in the Swiss Jura mountainsIn the Swiss Jura mountains most of the remaining ombrotrophic pear bogs have been exploited to some extent for peat. In these sires, natural regeneration processes are taking place. The dominant process is paludification, where a cut over drained surface is colonised by key species, usually either Polytrichum strictum or Eriophortum vaginatum. These early colonisers of bare pear surfaces create microclimatic conditions that enable the re-colonisation of Sphagnum mosses, usually S. fallax. In later stages of the succession S. fallax grows to Form a continuous carpet and the key species gradually suffer from competition for light availability. We studied the effect of elevated CO2 (560 ppm) and nitrogen deposition (30 kg ha(-1) year(-1)) on the competition between Sphagnum fallax and Polytrichum strictum year in a three years field experiment (EU project BERI - Bog Ecosystem Research Initiative) using miniFACE systems (small size Free Air Carbon dioxide Enrichment). The cover and growth in length of the two species was monitored. The height difference between the emerging Polytrichum and the top of the Sphagnum mosses was also recorded at regular intervals, Effect Of CO2: Sphagnum covet increased in the first year but this trend was not confirmed subsequently, whereas Polytrichum cover was not affected by elevated CO2 Both Sphagnum and Polytrichum had a reduced growth in length under elevated CO2. However, the growth of Sphagnum was less reduced than that of Polytrichum and therefore the height difference between Sphagnum and Polytrichum decreased. Effect of N: Sphagnum cover declined and Polytrichum cover doubled over the three years period in the high N plots. Sphagnum growth in length was not significant affected by N, but Polytrichum grew more in the high N plots. As a results the height difference between Sphagnum and Polytrichum increased. These results suggest that elevated CO2 and nitrogen deposition may have contrasting effects on bog regeneration. The positive effect of elevated CO2 on Sphagnum mosses may be counterbalanced by higher N deposition levels.
- PublicationMétadonnées seulementCan testate amoebae (Protozoa) and other micro-organisms help to overcome biogeographic bias in large scale global change research?(: Springer, 1999)
; ;Gilbert, Daniel ;Butler, Alexandre ;Grosvernier, Philippe ;Albinsson, Christer ;Rydin, Hakan ;Heijmans, Monique ;Hoosbeek, Marcel ;Greenup, Alisson ;Foot, Jonathan ;Saarinen, Timo ;Vasander, Harri ; ;Visconti, Guido ;Beniston, Martin ;Iannorelli, Emilio DBarba, DiegoTo monitor global change, large scale long term studies are needed. Such studies often focus on vegetation, but most plant species have limited distribution areas. Micro-organisms by contrast are mostly cosmopolitan in their distributions. To study the relationships between organisation groups, we analysed the testate amoebae (Protozoa), vegetation, and water chemistry of five Sphagnum peatlands across Europe. Inter-site differences were more pronounced for the vegetation than for testate amoebae species assemblage. Testate amoebae represent a useful tool in multi-site studies and environmental monitoring of peatlands because: 1) the number of species is much higher than for plants, 2) most species are cosmopolitan and are therefore less affected by biogeographical distribution patterns than plants; thus differences in restate amoebae assemblages can be interpreted primarily in terms of ecology, 3) restate amoebae can be used to analyse and monitor small scale (cm) gradients that play a major role in the functioning of peatland ecosystems. We further studied the effect of elevated CO2 on microbial communities in the same peatlands. Elevated COL increased the biomass of heterotrophic bacteria and decreased the biomass of medium size protozoa (mostly small restate amoebae). These effects suggest changes in community functioning that may have feedback effects on other components of the ecosystem.