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  • Publication
    Métadonnées seulement
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    The multifaceted role of ABA in disease resistance
    (2009)
    Ton, Jurriaan
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    ;
    Long known only for its role in abiotic stress tolerance, recent evidence shows that abscisic acid (ABA) also has a prominent role in biotic stress. Although it acts as a negative regulator of disease resistance, ABA can also promote plant defense and is involved in a complicated network of synergistic and antagonistic interactions. Its role in disease resistance depends on the type of pathogen, its specific way of entering the host and, hence, the timing of the defense response and the type of affected plant tissue. Here, we discuss the controversial evidence pointing to either a repression or a promotion of resistance by ABA. Furthermore, we propose a model in which both possibilities are integrated.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Signal signature of aboveground-induced resistance upon belowground herbivory in maize
    (2009) ; ;
    Karlen, Danielle
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    de Lange, Elvira S.
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    D’Alessandro, Marco
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    Ton, Jurriaan
    Plants activate local and systemic defence mechanisms upon exposure to stress. This innate immune response is partially regulated by plant hormones, and involves the accumulation of defensive metabolites. Although local defence reactions to herbivores are well studied, less is known about the impact of root herbivory on shoot defence. Here, we examined the effects of belowground infestation by the western corn rootworm Diabrotica virgifera virgifera on aboveground resistance in maize. Belowground herbivory by D. v. virgifera induced aboveground resistance against the generalist herbivore Spodoptera littoralis, and the necrotrophic pathogen Setosphaeria turcica. Furthermore, D. v. virgifera increased shoot levels of 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one (DIMBOA), and primed the induction of chlorogenic acid upon subsequent infestation by S. littoralis. To gain insight into the signalling network behind this below- and aboveground defence interaction, we compiled a set of 32 defence-related genes, which can be used as transcriptional marker systems to detect activities of different hormone-response pathways. Belowground attack by D. v. virgifera triggered an ABA-inducible transcription pattern in the shoot. The quantification of defence hormones showed a local increase in the production of oxylipins after root and shoot infestation by D. v. virgifera and S. littoralis, respectively. On the other hand, ABA accumulated locally and systemically upon belowground attack by D. v. virgifera. Furthermore, D. v. virgifera reduced the aboveground water content, whereas the removal of similar quantities of root biomass had no effect. Our study shows that root herbivory by D. v. virgifera specifically alters the aboveground defence status of a maize, and suggests that ABA plays a role in the signalling network mediating this interaction.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Interplay between JA, SA and ABA signalling during basal and induced resistance against Pseudomonas syringae and Alternaria brassicicola
    (2007) ;
    Ton, Jurriaan
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    van Doorn, Ronald
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    Jakab, Gabor
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    García-Agustín, Pilar
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    We have examined the role of the callose synthase PMR4 in basal resistance and β-aminobutyric acid-induced resistance (BABA-IR) of Arabidopsis thaliana against the hemi-biotrophic pathogen Pseudomonas syringae and the necrotrophic pathogen Alternaria brassicicola. Compared to wild-type plants, the pmr4-1 mutant displayed enhanced basal resistance against P. syringae, which correlated with constitutive expression of the PR-1 gene. Treating the pmr4-1 mutant with BABA boosted the already elevated levels of PR-1 gene expression, and further increased the level of resistance. Hence, BABA-IR against P. syringae does not require PMR4-derived callose. Conversely, pmr4-1 plants showed enhanced susceptibility to A. brassicicola, and failed to show BABA-IR. Wild-type plants showing BABA-IR against A. brassicicola produced increased levels of JA. The pmr4-1 mutant produced less JA upon A. brassicicola infection than the wild-type. Blocking SA accumulation in pmr4-1 restored basal resistance, but not BABA-IR against A. brassicicola. This suggests that the mutant's enhanced susceptibility to A. brassicicola is caused by SA-mediated suppression of JA, whereas the lack of BABA-IR is caused by its inability to produce callose. A. brassicicola infection suppressed ABA accumulation. Pre-treatment with BABA antagonized this ABA accumulation, and concurrently potentiated expression of the ABA-responsive ABI1 gene. Hence, BABA prevents pathogen-induced suppression of ABA accumulation, and sensitizes the tissue to ABA, causing augmented deposition of PMR4-derived callose.
  • Publication
    Métadonnées seulement
    Priming: getting ready for battle
    (2006)
    Conrath, Uwe
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    Beckers, Gerold J. M.
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    García-Agustín, Pilar
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    Jakab, Gábor
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    Mauch, Felix
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    Newman, Mari-Anne
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    Pieterse, Corné M. J.
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    Poinssot, Benoit
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    Pozo, María J.
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    Pugin, A.
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    Schaffrath, U.
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    Ton, Jurriaan
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    Wendehenne, D.
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    Zimmerli, L.
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  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Priming: Getting Ready for Battle
    (2006)
    Conrath, Uwe
    ;
    Beckers, Gerold J. M.
    ;
    ;
    García-Agustín, Pilar
    ;
    Jakab, Gábor
    ;
    Mauch, Felix
    ;
    Newman, Mari-Anne
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    Pieterse, Corné M. J.
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    Poinssot, Benoit
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    Pozo, María J.
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    Pugin, Alain
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    Schaffrath, Ulrich
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    Ton, Jurriaan
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    Wendehenne, David
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    Zimmerli, Laurent
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    Infection of plants by necrotizing pathogens or colonization of plant roots with certain beneficial microbes causes the induction of a unique physiological state called “ priming”. The primed state can also be induced by treatment of plants with various natural and synthetic compounds. Primed plants display either faster, stronger, or both activation of the various cellular defense responses that are induced following attack by either pathogens or insects or in response to abiotic stress. Although the phenomenon has been known for decades, most progress in our understanding of priming has been made over the past few years. Here, we summarize the current knowledge of priming in various induced-resistance phenomena in plants.
  • Publication
    Métadonnées seulement
  • Publication
    Métadonnées seulement
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Dissecting the ß-Aminobutyric Acid–Induced Priming Phenomenon in Arabidopsis
    (2005)
    Ton, Jurriaan
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    Jakab, Gabor
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    Toquin, Valérie
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    Iavicoli, Annalisa
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    Maeder, Muriel N.
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    Métraux, Jean-Pierre
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    Plants treated with the nonprotein amino acid ß-aminobutyric acid (BABA) develop an enhanced capacity to resist biotic and abiotic stresses. This BABA-induced resistance (BABA-IR) is associated with an augmented capacity to express basal defense responses, a phenomenon known as priming. Based on the observation that high amounts of BABA induce sterility in Arabidopsis thaliana, a mutagenesis screen was performed to select mutants impaired in BABA-induced sterility (ibs). Here, we report the isolation and subsequent characterization of three T-DNA–tagged ibs mutants. Mutant ibs1 is affected in a cyclin-dependent kinase–like protein, and ibs2 is defective in AtSAC1b encoding a polyphosphoinositide phosphatase. Mutant ibs3 is affected in the regulation of the ABA1 gene encoding the abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthetic enzyme zeaxanthin epoxidase. To elucidate the function of the three IBS genes in plant resistance, the mutants were tested for BABA-IR against the bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato, the oomycete Hyaloperonospora parasitica, and BABA-induced tolerance to salt. All three ibs mutants were compromised in BABA-IR against H. parasitica, although to a different extent. Whereas ibs1 was reduced in priming for salicylate (SA)-dependent trailing necrosis, mutants ibs2 and ibs3 were affected in the priming for callose deposition. Only ibs1 failed to express BABA-IR against P. syringae, which coincided with a defect in priming for SA-inducible PR-1 gene expression. By contrast, ibs2 and ibs3 showed reduced BABA-induced tolerance to salt, which correlated with an affected priming for ABA-inducible gene expression. For all three ibs alleles, the defects in BABA-induced sterility and BABA-induced protection against P. syringae, H. parasitica, and salt could be confirmed in independent mutants. The data presented here introduce three novel regulatory genes involved in priming for different defense responses.