Voici les éléments 1 - 3 sur 3
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Storytelling as Adaptive Collective Sensemaking.
    Storytelling represents a key element in the creation and propagation of culture. Three main accounts of the adaptive function of storytelling include (a) manipulating the behavior of the audience to enhance the fitness of the narrator, (b) transmitting survival-relevant information while avoiding the costs involved in the first-hand acquisition of that information, and (c) maintaining social bonds or group-level cooperation. We assess the substantial evidence collected in experimental and ethnographic studies for each account. These accounts do not always appeal to the specific features of storytelling above and beyond language use in general. We propose that the specific adaptive value of storytelling lies in making sense of non-routine, uncertain, or novel situations, thereby enabling the collaborative development of previously acquired skills and knowledge, but also promoting social cohesion by strengthening intragroup identity and clarifying intergroup relations.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Cultural transmission in a food preparation task: The role of interactivity, innovation and storytelling.
    Interactive conversation drives the transmission of cultural information in small groups and large networks. In formal (e.g. schools) and informal (e.g. home) learning settings, interactivity does not only allow individuals and groups to faithfully transmit and learn new knowledge and skills, but also to boost cumulative cultural evolution. Here we investigate how interactivity affects performance, teaching, learning, innovation and chosen diffusion mode (e.g. instructional discourse vs. storytelling) of previously acquired information in a transmission chain experiment. In our experiment, participants (n = 288) working in 48 chains with three generations of pairs had to learn and complete a collaborative food preparation task (ravioli-making), and then transmit their experience to a new generation of participants in an interactive and non-interactive condition. Food preparation is a real-world task that it is taught and learned across cultures and transmitted over generations in families and groups. Pairs were defined as teachers or learners depending on their role in the transmission chain. The number of good exemplars of ravioli each pair produced was taken as measurement of performance. Contrary to our expectations, the results did not reveal that (1) performance increased over generations or that (2) interactivity in transmission sessions promoted increased performance. However, the results showed that (3) interactivity promoted the transmission of more information from teachers to learners; (4) increased quantity of information transmission from teachers led to higher performance in learners; (5) higher performance generations introduced more innovations in transmission sessions; (6) learners applied those transmitted innovations to their performance which made them persist over generations; (7) storytelling was specialized for the transmission of non-routine, unexpected information. Our findings offer new insights on how interactivity, innovation and storytelling affect the cultural transmission of complex collaborative tasks.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Ethnomethodological studies of nurse-patient and nurse-relative interactions: A scoping review
    Objectives: Researchers in nursing science interested in the study of nurse-patient and nurse-relative interactions have displayed an ever increasing interest in ethnomethodology and conversation analysis. This review assesses the scope of this literature. We categorize the papers in thematic categories determined both inductively and deductively and synthesize the main findings of this literature within category. Finally we discuss the interactional determinants of the lack patient participation, the limitations of the field, and focus on implications.
    Design: A scoping review on nurse-patient and nurse-relative interactions.
    Data sources: Forty articles focusing on nurse-patient interactions and nurse-relative interactions. All the articles relied on ethnomethodology and/or conversation analysis.
    Review methods: A literature search has been carried out on Medline (all articles until June 2016; keywords were: nurs*.ab. and “conversation analysis”; nurs*.ab. and ethnomethodology). A similar search was performed on other platforms. The scope of the literature was identified by inductively and deductively analyzing the themes of the relevant articles.
    Results: Six thematic categories emerged: Organization of nurse-patient interaction (eleven articles); Organization of mediated nurse-patient interaction (seven articles); Information, explanation and advice (eight articles); Negotiation and influence asymmetry (six articles); Managing emotions in critical illness (two articles); and Interacting with patients presenting reduced interactional competences (six articles).
    Conclusions: Across most thematic categories it appeared that patient participation is far from ideal as interactional asymmetry was most observed in favor of nurses. When the encounters occurred at the patients’ homes this pattern was reversed. Computer-mediated interactions were often reported as nonoptimal as the standardized process constrained communication and delayed patients’ presentation of their ailments. Micro-analyses of interaction present a clear potential for the development of guidelines for nurse-patient interactions. Implications for practice are described.