Voici les éléments 1 - 5 sur 5
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Does Competition for Clients Increase Service Quality in Cleaning Gobies?
    (2008)
    Soares, Marta C.
    ;
    Cardoso, Sonia C.
    ;
    ;
    Côté, Isabelle M.
    In a biological market, members of one trading class try to outbid each other to gain access to the most valuable partners. Competition within class can thus force individuals to trade goods or services more cheaply, ultimately resulting in conflict (e.g. cheating) over the value of commodities. Cleaning symbioses among fish appear to be good examples of biological markets. However, the existence and effect of outbidding competition among either types of traders (cleaners or clients) have never been tested. We examined whether increasing competition among cleaning gobies (Elacatinus spp.) for access to clients results in outbidding in the form of provision of a better cleaning service. On reefs where fish clients visited cleaning stations less frequently, and thus competition among cleaners was higher, cleaning gobies ingested fewer scales relative to the number of ingested parasites, i.e. they cleaned more honestly. This shift in cleaner behaviour towards greater honesty is consistent with a greater market value of access to clients in the face of competition among cleaners. However, this pattern could have also arisen as a result of differences in ectoparasite availability across reefs and therefore in value of the commodity offered by clients. Experimental manipulations will be required to determine whether cleaning service quality by cleaning gobies was enhanced solely because of competitive outbidding.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Does cleanerfish service quality depend on client value or choice options?
    (2008)
    Soares, Marta C.
    ;
    ;
    Côté, Isabelle M.
    Cleaning fish mutualisms appear to be good examples of biological markets. Two classes of traders exist: cleaner fish and their fish clients, each of which supplies a commodity required by the other (ectoparasite removal and a meal, respectively). However, clients are not all treated similarly by cleaners. There is evidence that clients with choice options (with potential access to more than one cleaner) have priority of access over clients without choice options. Market theory predicts that client value (i.e. ectoparasite load) should also influence cleaning service quality. We examined the relative roles of client choice options and client value in determining the duration of cleaning interactions between bluestreak cleaner wrasse, Labroides dimidiatus, and their clients across three geographically distant sites. We found a lack of covariation between client choice options and gnathiid ectoparasite loads. Geographical differences in gnathiid availability altered the importance of client gnathiid load as a determinant of client inspection duration. As predicted, clients with both choice options and high gnathiid loads were inspected for longer, but this was observed only in an area with a relatively high incidence of parasitism. These correlational results suggest that the importance of client choice for aspects of cleaner fish service quality may be modulated by parasite availability.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    The Meaning of Jolts by Fish Clients of Cleaning Gobies
    (2008)
    Soares, Marta C.
    ;
    ;
    Cardoso, Sonia C.
    ;
    Côté, Isabelle M.
    Cooperative interactions offer the inherent possibility of cheating by each of the interacting partners. A key challenge to behavioural observers is to recognize these conflicts, and find means to measure reliably cheating in natural interactions. Cleanerfish Labroides dimidiatus cheat by taking scales and mucus from their fish clients and such dishonest cleaning has been previously recognized in the form of whole-body jolts by clients in response to cleaner mouth contact. In this study, we test whether jolts may be a general client response to cheating by cleaners. We experimentally varied the ectoparasite loads of yellowtail damselfish (Microspathodon chrysurus), a common client of the cleaning goby Elacantinus evelynae, and compared the rates of jolts on parasitized and deparasitized clients. As predicted if jolts represent cleaner cheating, deparasitized clients jolted more often than parasitized clients, and overall jolt rates increased over time as client parasite load was presumably reduced by cleaning activity. Yellowtail damselfish in the wild jolted significantly less frequently than those in captivity, which is consistent with a loss of ectoparasites during capture. Our results suggest that jolts by clients of cleaning gobies are not related to the removal of ectoparasites. Client jolts may therefore be a generally accurate measure of cheating by cleanerfish.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    The cleaning goby mutualism: a system without punishment, partner switching or tactile stimulation
    (2008)
    Soares, Marta C.
    ;
    Côté, Isabelle M.
    ;
    Cardoso, S.C.
    ;
    In the cleanerfish–client mutualism involving the Indo-Pacific cleaner wrasse Labroides dimidiatus and its reef fish clients, mechanisms such as ‘tactile stimulation’, partner switching and punishment are used by clients to control cheating by cleaners. We sought to establish whether these behaviours are general features of cleaning mutualisms by examining their presence in interactions between Caribbean cleaning gobies (Elacatinus spp.) and their clients. The cleaning goby–client mutualism bears several similarities to the cleaner wrasse system: clients visit cleaners frequently to have their ectoparasites removed while cleaners depend heavily on these visits for food, and cheating by cleaning gobies is also prevalent. However, our data revealed striking differences between the two cleanerfish systems: clients did not seem to attempt to control cheating by cleaning gobies and cleaning gobies did not perform tactile stimulation on their clients. We suggest three hypotheses that might explain these major differences between both systems, based on differences in mutual dependence between cleaners and clients or cognitive ability of cleaners, differences in costs of being cheated and differences in foraging preferences by cleaners. Interactions between L. dimidiatus and its clients should probably not be seen as the ‘standard’ marine fish cleaning mutualism.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Cleaning in pairs enhances honesty in male cleaning gobies
    (2009)
    Soares, Marta C.
    ;
    ;
    Côté, Isabelle M.
    A recent game theoretic model akin to an iterated prisoner's dilemma explored situations in which 2 individuals (the service providers) interact simultaneously with the same service recipient (the client). If providing a dishonest service pays, then each service provider may be tempted to cheat before its partner, even if cheating causes the client's departure; however, a theoretical cooperative solution also exists where both partners should reduce cheating rates. This prediction is supported by indirect measures of cheating (i.e., inferred from client responses) by pairs of Indo-Pacific bluestreak cleaner wrasses Labroides dimidiatus. Here, we examine how inspecting in pairs affects service quality in Caribbean cleaning gobies Elacatinus spp. We measured dishonesty directly by examining the stomach contents of solitary and paired individuals and calculating the ratio of scales to ectoparasites ingested. We found that the propensity to cheat of females and males differed: females always cleaned relatively honestly, whereas males cheated less when cleaning in pairs than when cleaning alone. However, overall, the cleaning service of single and paired individuals was similar. Our results confirm that cleaners cooperate when cleaning in pairs; however, our findings differ from the specific predictions of the model and the observations on L. dimidiatus. The differences may be due to differences in mating systems and cleaner–client interactions between the 2 cleaner fish species.