FiltresRéinitialiser les filtres
Voici les éléments 1 - 10 sur 19
- PublicationMétadonnées seulementQuantitative analysis of Borrelia burgdorferi gene expression in naturally (tick) infected mouse strains(2005)
;Lederer, Sharon ;Brenner, Christiane ;Stehle, Thomas ; ;Wallich, ReinhardSimon, Markus MAdaptation of Borrelia burgdorferi in the vector and vertebrate host is mediated by mechanisms that regulate differential expression of outer surface lipoproteins (Osps). In this study, real time PCR was applied to quantify tissue-specific expression of four linear plasmid (lp54)-encoded (ospA, zs7.a36, zs7.a66 zs7.a68) and one circular plasmid (cp26)-encoded (ospC) gene from B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, in a natural setting of tick-infected immunodeficient (C.B-17 SCID) and immunocompetent (BALB/c and AKR/OlaHsd) mice for up to 120 days post-infection (p.i.). Early during infection (day 30 p.i.) high numbers of spirochetes were found in the heart and joint, but not the ear and spleen tissues of disease-susceptible SCID mice. In disease-susceptible AKR mice spirochetes colonized the ear and joint tissues, but were undetectable in tissues of disease-resistant BALB/c mice. Later in infection (day 120 p.i.), spirochetes had expanded (similar to1,000-fold) in all SCID tissues tested but were undetectable in AKR and BALB/c mice. Of the five genes analyzed, only zs7.a36 transcripts were detected in various tissues of all infected mouse strains, though at differing levels, whereas ospC transcripts were only found in tissue specimens of SCID mice. Furthermore, gene expression of ospC and zs7.a36 appears to be differentially regulated in distinct organs of individual mice. In contrast, transcripts for ospA, zs7.a66, and zs7.a68 were not detected in any of the mouse strains, independent of their immune status and/or the severity of their infection/inflammatory responses. Late during infection (day 120 p.i.), transcription of zs7.a36 and ospC was down-regulated in the tissues of SCID mice despite expansion of spirochetes. This type of quantitative analysis may be helpful to further disclose principles of pathogenesis of Lyme borreliosis and to design strategies for its therapeutic treatment.
- PublicationMétadonnées seulementReservoir role of lizard Psammodromus algirus in transmission cycle of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (Spirochaetaceae) in Tunisia(2006)
;Dsouli, Najla ;Younsi-Kabachii, Hend ;Postic, Danièle ;Nouira, Said ;Bouattour, AliTo investigate the reservoir role of the lizard Psammodromus algirus for the Lyme disease spirochete, 199 lizards were trapped from April to October 2003 in El Jouza, northwestern Tunisia. In this site, the infection rate of free-living Ixodes ricinus (L.) by Borrelia was evaluated by immunofluorescence as 34.6% for adult ticks and 12.5% for nymphs. Eighty percent of P. algirus (117/146) captured during this study were infested by I. ricinus, the predominant tick species collected from lizards. The intensity of tick infestation of this host by larvae and nymphs ranged from 0.14 to 7.07 and from 1.5 to 6.58, respectively. These immature stages of I. ricinus were found on lizards in spring and the beginning of summer, with a peak of intensity during June (10.16 immature ticks by lizard). Tissue cultures from lizards and xenodiagnosis with larval L ricinus were used to assess the infection and the ability, respectively, of infected lizards to transmit Borrelia to naive ticks. Seventeen percent of xenodiagnostic ticks (40/229) acquired B. lusitaniae while feeding on P. algirus. Therefore, we demonstrated the ability of the lizards to sustain Borrelia infection and to infect attached ticks, and we proved that P. algirus is a reservoir host competent to transmit B. lusitaniae.
- PublicationMétadonnées seulementApodemus species mice are reservoir hosts of Borrelia garinii OspA serotype 4 in Switzerland(2002)
;Hügli, Delphine ;Hu, Chang Min ;Humair, Pierre-François ;Wilske, BettinaAmong Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato isolates, seven outer surface protein A (OspA) serotypes have been described: serotypes 1 and 2 correspond to B. burgdorferi sensu stricto and Borrelia afzelii, respectively, and serotypes 3 to 7 correspond to Borrelia garinii. In Europe, serotype 4 has never been isolated from Ixodes ricinus ticks until recently, although this serotype has been frequently isolated from cerebrospinal fluid from patients. In Europe, B. afzelii and B. burgdorferi sensu stricto were found associated with rodents and B. garinii was found associated with birds. In this study, the reservoir role of Apodemus mice for B. garinii OspA serotype 4 was demonstrated by xenodiagnosis. Apodemus mice are the first identified reservoir hosts for B. garinii OspA serotype 4.
- PublicationMétadonnées seulementCharacterization of Borrelia lusitaniae isolates collected in Tunisia and Morocco(2005)
;Younsi, Hend ;Sarih, M'Hammed ;Jouda, Fatima ;Godfroid, Edmond ; ;Bouattour, Ali ;Baranton, GuyPostic, DanièleBorrelia lusitaniae is a species within the complex Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and is infrequently isolated in Europe. In contrast, this species is by far the most predominant in North Africa and in Portugal. In this study, we analyzed the genetic diversity, at several loci, of a large population of isolates from free-living Ixodes ricinus ticks collected in Tunisia and Morocco. We found a moderate diversity of the whole genome by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis as well as in the ospA gene sequences, compared to a high level of strain homogeneity in the small noncoding ribosomal spacer. In contrast, a high diversity of this locus has been previously reported for Portuguese isolates. We hypothesize that B. lusitaniae strains isolated in North Africa constitute a clone of Portuguese origin.
- PublicationMétadonnées seulementDensity of questing Ixodes ricinus nymphs and adults infected by Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato in Switzerland: Spatio-temporal pattern at a regional scaleLyme borreliosis, the most important vector-borne disease in the Northern hemisphere, causes health problem for populations in endemic areas. In the present study, the density of questing Ixodes ricinus ticks and their infection with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (sl) was examined in 11 areas located on the Swiss Plateau and in an alpine valley. From 1999 to 2001, free-living I. ricinus ticks were collected on a monthly basis by flagging vegetation in these areas. Each tick was examined for the presence of B. burgdorferi A using direct fluorescent antibody assay, and for isolation of the bacteria. Borreliae were characterized by PCR followed by RFLP. Density of questing ticks varied greatly between studied areas. Borreliae were observed in ticks collected in all investigated sites. However, the prevalence of infection differed significantly among areas. Infection prevalence varied from 9% to 40% in nymphs and from 22% to 47% in adults. Adult ticks were significantly more infected (129/366, 35%) than nymphs (109/552, 20%). There was no correlation between nymphal density and infection prevalence as well as between adult density and infection prevalence, but there was a correlation between density of ticks and density of infected ticks. During the spring peak of questing tick density, a range of 2-30.3 infected ticks per 100 m(2) was observed. B. burgdorferi sl isolates (n = 129) were obtained from ticks collected in 10/11 areas. Five Borrelia species were identifed: B. garinii, B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. afzelii, B. valaisiana, B. lusitaniae, and six mixed infections were also obtained. Borrelia species were heterogeneously distributed in the different areas.
- PublicationMétadonnées seulementIxodes ricinus density, and distribution and prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato infection along an altitudinal gradientIn this study, we measured the phenology of Ixodes ricinus ticks and their infection with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (sl) simultaneously along an altitudinal gradient to assess the impact of climate on the phenology of ticks and on their infection with B. burgdorferi sl. From 1999 to 2001, free-living I. ricinus ticks were collected monthly by flagging vegetation at three different altitudes (620, 740, and 900 in above sea level) on the slope of a mountain in Chaumont (Neuchatel, Switzerland). I. ricinus ticks were examined for the presence of B, burgdorferi sl by using direct fluorescent antibody assay and isolation of spirochetes. Borrelia species were characterized by polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment-length polymorphism. Tick density and tick phenology varied with altitude. Although the peak tick density decreased and the onset of ticks was delayed with altitude, the phenology, vas much more stable among years at the highest altitudes than at the lowest. The prevalence of B. burgdorferi infection in nymphs and adults decreased with altitude. The prevalence of infection differed significantly among years, and it was significantly higher in adults (30%) than in nymphs (21%). B. burgdorferi infection in adults was positively related with adult density, but this was not observed for nymphs. Five B. burgdorferi sl genospecies were successfully : B. garinii, B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. afzelii, B. valaisiana, and B. lusitaniae. Mixed isolate infections were obtained from five of 140 infected ticks. The greatest diversity in Borrelia species was observed at the lowest altitude where all five Borrelia species were present, whereas at the two highest altitudes, B. lusitaniae was not observed.
- PublicationMétadonnées seulementFirst isolation of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato from Ixodes ricinus ticks in Morocco(2003)
;Sarih, M'Hammed ;Jouda, Fatima ;Postic, DanièleTo determine the infection rate of Ixodes ricinus (I. ricinus) ticks with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (B. burgdorferi sl) and to assess the frequency of the individual Borrelia species in this tick species, a total of 295 I. ricinus were collected in Taza region (Northeast of Morocco), from January to June 2002. The presence of B. burgdorferi A was determined by direct fluorescence antibody assay (DFA) and by PCR after culture. B. burgdorferi sl isolates were identified at the species level by restriction fragment length polymorphism. analysis of amplified products. The mean rate of I. ricinus infection with B. burgdorferi sl was 47.8%. Isolation attempts in BSK II medium resulted in 26 pure isolates. However, PCR performed on culture medium allowed to identify 82 Borrelia DNAs. B. lusitaniae has been identified from 76 out of 82 infected I. ricinus ticks (92.7%). Three ticks were infected by B. burgdorferi ss, and three other ticks were infected by B. garinii. This is the first report of the presence of B. burgdorferi A in Morocco and more specifically of B. burgdorferi ss in North Africa.
- PublicationMétadonnées seulementIdentification of host bloodmeal source and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in field-collected Ixodes ricinus ticks in Chaumont (Switzerland)(2007)
;Cadenas, Francisca Moran ; ;Humair, Pierre-François ; ;Moret, JacquelineTo evaluate the importance of vertebrate species as tick hosts and as reservoir hosts in two endemic areas for Lyme borreliosis in Switzerland, we applied molecular methods for the analysis of bloodmeal source and Borrelia infection in questing Ixodes ricinus L. ticks. In total, 1,326 questing ticks were simultaneously analyzed for Borrelia and for blood meal remnants by using reverse line blot. An overall infection prevalence of 19.0% was recorded for Borrelia sp., with similar rates in both sites. Using a newly developed method for the analysis of bloodmeal targeting the 12S rDNA mitochondrial gene, identification of host DNA from field-collected ticks was possible in 43.6% of cases. Success of host identification at the genus and species level reached 72%. In one site, host identification success reached its maximum in spring (93% in May), decreasing in summer (20% in July) and rising in autumn (73% in October). In the other site, identification rate in ticks remained low from April to July and increased in autumn reaching 68% in October and November. The most prevalent identified host DNA was artiodactyls in both sites. Red squirrel DNA was significantly more frequently detected in ticks collected in one site, whereas insectivore DNA was more frequent in ticks in the other site. DNA from more than one vertebrate host was detected in 19.5% of nymphs and 18.9% of adults. Host DNA was identified in 48.4% of the Borrelia infected ticks. Although DNA from all Borrelia species was found in at least some ticks with DNA from mammals and some ticks with DNA from birds, our results confirm a general association of B. afzelii and B. burgdorferi sensu stricto with rodents, and B. valaisiana and B. garinii with birds.
- PublicationMétadonnées seulementEntomologic and serologic evidence of zoonotic transmission of Babesia microti, eastern Switzerland(2002)
;Foppa, Ivo M ;Krause, Peter J ;Spielman, Andrew ;Goethert, Heidi ; ;Brand, BrigitTelford, Sam RWe evaluated human risk for infection with Babesia microti at a site in eastern Switzerland where several B. microti-infected nymphal Ixodes ricinus ticks had been found. DNA from pooled nymphal ticks amplified by polymerase chain reaction was highly homologous to published B. microti sequences. More ticks carried babesial infection in the lower portion of the rectangular 0.7-ha grid than in the upper (11% vs. 0.8%). In addition, we measured seroprevalence of immunoglobulin (Ig) G antibodies against B. microti antigen in nearby residents. Serum from 1.5% of the 396 human residents of the region reacted to B. microti antigen (greater than or equal to1:64), as determined by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IgG). These observations constitute the first report demonstrating B. microti in a human-biting vector, associated with evidence of human exposure to this agent in a European site.
- PublicationMétadonnées seulementMolecular identification of bloodmeal source in Ixodes ricinus ticks using 12S rDNA as a genetic marker(2007)
;Humair, Pierre-François ; ;Cadenas, Francisca Moran ;Schouls, Leo M ;Van de Pol, IngridWe developed an efficient molecular method for the identification of the bloodmeal sources in the tick Ixodes ricinus (L.), the European vector of the agents of Lyme borreliosis and tick-borne encephalitis. A approximate to 145-bp orthologous fragment of the vertebrate mitochondrial 12S rDNA was used as a molecular marker to discriminate host vertebrate species. The method consists of a single run polymerase chain reaction amplification of the 12S rDNA molecular marker by using nondegenerate primers followed by a reverse line blot hybridization assay by using specific oligonucleotide probes. The palette of probes allowed us to distinguish major groups of host vertebrates (e.g., mammals, small rodents, artiodactyls, birds, lizards) and to identify the bloodmeal sources at the genus or species level. External primers were designed and used to sequence the 12S rDNA molecular marker of a broad range of known or potential host vertebrate species (n = 60), including mammal (n = 28), bird (n = 31), and reptile (n = 1) species. The use of this technique coupled with known methods for identification of tick-borne pathogens (e.g., Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato) allowed us to determine the source of infective bloodmeal and to identify reservoir species. The present method was successfully used to identify the source of bloodmeals in all feeding I. ricinus ticks and in half of questing field-collected L ricinus ticks. Moreover, the bloodmeal source was identified in 65% of ticks infected with B. burgdorferi sensu lato. Further development of this technique may be envisaged for the detection of other vector-borne patbogens and their reservoir hosts.