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- PublicationMétadonnées seulementIxodes ricinus density and infection prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato along a north-facing altitudinal gradient in the Rhône Valley (Switzerland)(2007)
;Burri, Caroline ;Cadenas, Francisca Moran ; ;Moret, JacquelineQuesting Ixodes ricinus ticks were sampled monthly along a north-facing altitudinal gradient in the canton of Valais, Switzerland, from March 2004 to February 2005. Tick density and infection with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato were monitored. Ticks were collected by flagging vegetation at three different altitudes (750 m, 880 m, and 1020 m above sea level). Ticks were examined for Borrelia by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by reverse line blot. At the three altitudes, questing tick activity was not observed under 10 degrees C and was reduced when saturation deficit was higher than 5 mm Hg, most questing tick activity was occurred between 2 mm Hg and 7 mm Hg. Tick density and peak tick density were highest at 1020 m. High saturation deficits at the lowest altitudes appear to impair the tick population. The prevalence of B. burgdorferi infection in nymphs and adults decreased with altitude. The prevalence of infection was higher in adult ticks (47%) than in nymphs (29%). Four B. burgdorferi sensu lato genospecies were detected: B. afzelii (40%), B. garinii (22%), B. valaisiana (12%) and B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (6%). Mixed infections were detected in 13% of infected ticks.
- PublicationMétadonnées seulementReservoir role of lizard Psammodromus algirus in transmission cycle of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (Spirochaetaceae) in Tunisia(2006)
;Dsouli, Najla ;Younsi-Kabachii, Hend ;Postic, Danièle ;Nouira, Said ;Bouattour, AliTo investigate the reservoir role of the lizard Psammodromus algirus for the Lyme disease spirochete, 199 lizards were trapped from April to October 2003 in El Jouza, northwestern Tunisia. In this site, the infection rate of free-living Ixodes ricinus (L.) by Borrelia was evaluated by immunofluorescence as 34.6% for adult ticks and 12.5% for nymphs. Eighty percent of P. algirus (117/146) captured during this study were infested by I. ricinus, the predominant tick species collected from lizards. The intensity of tick infestation of this host by larvae and nymphs ranged from 0.14 to 7.07 and from 1.5 to 6.58, respectively. These immature stages of I. ricinus were found on lizards in spring and the beginning of summer, with a peak of intensity during June (10.16 immature ticks by lizard). Tissue cultures from lizards and xenodiagnosis with larval L ricinus were used to assess the infection and the ability, respectively, of infected lizards to transmit Borrelia to naive ticks. Seventeen percent of xenodiagnostic ticks (40/229) acquired B. lusitaniae while feeding on P. algirus. Therefore, we demonstrated the ability of the lizards to sustain Borrelia infection and to infect attached ticks, and we proved that P. algirus is a reservoir host competent to transmit B. lusitaniae.
- PublicationMétadonnées seulementFirst isolation of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato from Ixodes ricinus ticks in Morocco(2003)
;Sarih, M'Hammed ;Jouda, Fatima ;Postic, DanièleTo determine the infection rate of Ixodes ricinus (I. ricinus) ticks with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (B. burgdorferi sl) and to assess the frequency of the individual Borrelia species in this tick species, a total of 295 I. ricinus were collected in Taza region (Northeast of Morocco), from January to June 2002. The presence of B. burgdorferi A was determined by direct fluorescence antibody assay (DFA) and by PCR after culture. B. burgdorferi sl isolates were identified at the species level by restriction fragment length polymorphism. analysis of amplified products. The mean rate of I. ricinus infection with B. burgdorferi sl was 47.8%. Isolation attempts in BSK II medium resulted in 26 pure isolates. However, PCR performed on culture medium allowed to identify 82 Borrelia DNAs. B. lusitaniae has been identified from 76 out of 82 infected I. ricinus ticks (92.7%). Three ticks were infected by B. burgdorferi ss, and three other ticks were infected by B. garinii. This is the first report of the presence of B. burgdorferi A in Morocco and more specifically of B. burgdorferi ss in North Africa.
- PublicationMétadonnées seulementIdentification of host bloodmeal source and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in field-collected Ixodes ricinus ticks in Chaumont (Switzerland)(2007)
;Cadenas, Francisca Moran ; ;Humair, Pierre-François ; ;Moret, JacquelineTo evaluate the importance of vertebrate species as tick hosts and as reservoir hosts in two endemic areas for Lyme borreliosis in Switzerland, we applied molecular methods for the analysis of bloodmeal source and Borrelia infection in questing Ixodes ricinus L. ticks. In total, 1,326 questing ticks were simultaneously analyzed for Borrelia and for blood meal remnants by using reverse line blot. An overall infection prevalence of 19.0% was recorded for Borrelia sp., with similar rates in both sites. Using a newly developed method for the analysis of bloodmeal targeting the 12S rDNA mitochondrial gene, identification of host DNA from field-collected ticks was possible in 43.6% of cases. Success of host identification at the genus and species level reached 72%. In one site, host identification success reached its maximum in spring (93% in May), decreasing in summer (20% in July) and rising in autumn (73% in October). In the other site, identification rate in ticks remained low from April to July and increased in autumn reaching 68% in October and November. The most prevalent identified host DNA was artiodactyls in both sites. Red squirrel DNA was significantly more frequently detected in ticks collected in one site, whereas insectivore DNA was more frequent in ticks in the other site. DNA from more than one vertebrate host was detected in 19.5% of nymphs and 18.9% of adults. Host DNA was identified in 48.4% of the Borrelia infected ticks. Although DNA from all Borrelia species was found in at least some ticks with DNA from mammals and some ticks with DNA from birds, our results confirm a general association of B. afzelii and B. burgdorferi sensu stricto with rodents, and B. valaisiana and B. garinii with birds.
- PublicationMétadonnées seulementTicks and tick-borne pathogens from wildlife in the Free State province, South Africa(2009)
;Tonetti, N ;Berggoetz, M ;Ruhle, C ;Pretorius, A MEight ixodid tick species, associated with 59 free-ranging mammals belonging to 10 species, were collected at five different localities in the Free State Province, South Africa. Four of the study areas were nature reserves (Willem Pretorius, Sandveld, Tussen-die-Riviere, and Soetdoring), and one site was a private farm located in Senekal district. The collection was performed from March 2006 until June 2006. Ticks (n=569) and tissues from animals (n=52) were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction, reverse line blot, and sequencing for various tickborne pathogens belonging to the genera Babesia, Theileria, Anaplasma, and Ehrlichia. Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, the known vector of Babesia bovis responsible for Asiatic redwater in South Africa, was found for the first time in the Free State Province. Rhipicephalus appendiculatus also was collected in areas in the Free State where it has not been previously described. Anaplasma marginale was detected for the First time in a gemsbok (Oryx gazella gazella). Gene sequences recovered in this study were 98-100% homologous,with GenBank sequences for Anaplasma bovis, Theileria separata, and Theileria sp. Malelane sable antelope.
- PublicationMétadonnées seulementRelationship between Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato species, red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris) and Ixodes ricinus in enzootic areas in Switzerland(1998)
;Humair, Pierre-FrançoisThe infection and reservoir status of red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris) for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu late were studied in Switzerland. B. burgdorferi sensu late was isolated from 15 skin samples from 4/6 dead red squirrels, victims of road traffic. Isolates were identified using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP): B. burgdorferi sensu stricto was present in 14 culture tubes containing skin samples and B. afzelii in two other tubes. A mixed infection was revealed in one case. A total of 227 ticks attached to squirrels were cultivated in BSKII medium and 90 isolates were obtained. Genotypic identification by RFLP showed that B. afzelii (59%) and B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (46%) dominated in ticks feeding on red squirrels. Data collected from one particular animal, highly infested with Ixodes ricinus and harbouring numerous Borrelia-infected Ixodes ricinus ticks, showed that transmission of B. burgdorferi sensu late occurred from S. vulgaris to feeding ticks. More precisely, B. burgdorferi sensu stricto and B. afzelii were mainly transmitted from S. vulgaris to ticks. The present data emphasized the results obtained previously from small rodents and birds in Japan and in Switzerland, showing the occurrence of specific associations between host species and Borrelia genospecies. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
- PublicationMétadonnées seulementAn avian reservoir (Turdus merula) of the Lyme borreliosis spirochetes(1998)
;Humair, Pierre-François ;Postic, Danièle ;Wallich, ReinhardThe reservoir competence of passerine birds for the Lyme borreliosis spirochetes was studied in an enzootic focus in Switzerland. Skin aspirates and skin biopsies were used to isolate Borrelia spirochetes from Turdus species. B. burgdorferi sensu late was isolated and/or PCR-detected in BSK medium containing skin biopsy or skin aspirate from 5 blackbirds (T. merula) and one song thrush (T. philomelos). Seven isolates were obtained from 3 different blackbirds. Either B. garinii or Borrelia from the genomic group VS116 was found in bird skin samples. Mixed infection occurred in 2 cases. Tick xenodiagnosis was used to determine whether blackbirds transmitted Borrelia to ticks. Five xenodiagnoses were performed on 3 different blackbirds. Borrelia DNA was detected in BSK medium inoculated with xenodiagnostic ticks from all the passerines tested. Isolates cultured from xenodiagnostic ticks were obtained from 2 blackbirds. Isolates belonged to group VS116 (n = 10) and to B. garinii (n = 1). Our study has shown that Turdus sp. are infected by B. garinii and by Borrelia from group VS116 and that blackbirds are implicated as reservoirs for these 2 genomic groups of Borrelia, as they transmit living borreliae to ticks. An association seems to exist between birds and Borrelia VS116, and to a lesser extent, B. garinii, similar to the association existing between small rodents and B. afzelii. Our observations emphasize the fact that different enzootic cycles maintain Lyme borreliosis spirochetes in nature.
- PublicationMétadonnées seulementTransmission of Borrelia afzelii from Apodemus mice and Clethrionomys voles to Ixodes ricinus ticks: differential transmission pattern and overwintering maintenance(1999)
;Humair, Pierre-François ;This study deals with the ecology of Lyme borreliosis in Europe. The relationships between Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato spirochetes, Clethrionomys and Apodemus rodent reservoirs and the Ixodes ricinus tick vector were investigated during 16 consecutive months in an enzootic area in Switzerland. Cultivation of ear skin biopsies was used to isolate spirochetes from C. glareolus, A. sylvaticus, A. flavicollis and Glis glis. Borrelia infection was more frequently observed in Clethrionomys than in Apodemus. Tick xenodiagnosis was used to determine the infectivity of rodents. The infection rate in licks fed on Clethrionomys was higher than that in licks fed on Apodemus, but Apodemus yielded more infected ticks than Clethrionomys because of a better tick moulting success. Xenodiagnostic ticks were placed into BSK medium to obtain isolates. Isolates from rodents and rodent-feeding ticks were all identified as B. afzelii. The follow-up of the infectivity status of repeatedly recaptured rodents clearly demonstrated that these hosts remained infective for ticks during winter till the following spring. Comparing C. glareolus and A. sylvaticus, each rodent species showed different host infection, different host infectivity and contributed differently to the moulting success of feeding ticks. These factors influence differentially the pattern of transmission of B. afzelii from Clethrionomys voles and Apodemus mice to I. ricinus ticks.
- PublicationMétadonnées seulement
- PublicationMétadonnées seulementTransmission cycles of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato involving Ixodes ricinus and/or I-hexagonus ticks and the European hedgehog, Erinaceus europaeus, in suburban and urban areas in Switzerland(1997)
; ;Rouvinez, Evelyne ;Toutoungi, Lina NaimeGodfroid, EdmondEuropean hedgehog, Erinaceus europaeus Linnaeus, 1758, is a common host of Ixodes ricinus L, and I. hexagonus Leach, vectors of the Lyme disease spirochaete, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. TO investigate whether hedgehogs are reservoirs for B. burgdorferi, hedgehogs were captured in a suburban area suitable for both tick species and in an urban area where I, ricinus is absent. The infection status of the hedgehogs was determined by xenodiagnosis using I. ricinus and I. hexagonus larvae. I. hexagonus and/or I. ricinus were found on;ll hedgehogs (n = 8) from the suburban area. In contrast, only I. hexagonus was infesting animals (n = 5) from the urban area. A total of 12/13 hedgehogs harboured B. burgdorferi infected ticks. Xenodiagnostic I. ricinus and I. hexagonus larvae that fed on hedgehogs became infected. The results clearly show that European hedgehogs are reservoir hosts of the Lyme disease spirochetes. DNA of B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. garinii and B. afzelii was detected in culture from ear biopsy and needle aspiration material and characterized by using a genospecies-specific PCR assay. One hedgehog presented a mixed infection of the skin with B, burgdorferi sensu stricto and B. garinii. This study also identifies an enzootic transmission cycle in an urban area involving E. europaeus and I. hexagonus. The close association of I. hexagonus with the burrows of its hosts mean that the risks of contact between I. hexagonus and humans may be low.