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- PublicationMétadonnées seulementReservoir role of lizard Psammodromus algirus in transmission cycle of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (Spirochaetaceae) in Tunisia(2006)
;Dsouli, Najla ;Younsi-Kabachii, Hend ;Postic, Danièle ;Nouira, Said ;Bouattour, AliTo investigate the reservoir role of the lizard Psammodromus algirus for the Lyme disease spirochete, 199 lizards were trapped from April to October 2003 in El Jouza, northwestern Tunisia. In this site, the infection rate of free-living Ixodes ricinus (L.) by Borrelia was evaluated by immunofluorescence as 34.6% for adult ticks and 12.5% for nymphs. Eighty percent of P. algirus (117/146) captured during this study were infested by I. ricinus, the predominant tick species collected from lizards. The intensity of tick infestation of this host by larvae and nymphs ranged from 0.14 to 7.07 and from 1.5 to 6.58, respectively. These immature stages of I. ricinus were found on lizards in spring and the beginning of summer, with a peak of intensity during June (10.16 immature ticks by lizard). Tissue cultures from lizards and xenodiagnosis with larval L ricinus were used to assess the infection and the ability, respectively, of infected lizards to transmit Borrelia to naive ticks. Seventeen percent of xenodiagnostic ticks (40/229) acquired B. lusitaniae while feeding on P. algirus. Therefore, we demonstrated the ability of the lizards to sustain Borrelia infection and to infect attached ticks, and we proved that P. algirus is a reservoir host competent to transmit B. lusitaniae.
- PublicationMétadonnées seulementApodemus species mice are reservoir hosts of Borrelia garinii OspA serotype 4 in Switzerland(2002)
;Hügli, Delphine ;Hu, Chang Min ;Humair, Pierre-François ;Wilske, BettinaAmong Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato isolates, seven outer surface protein A (OspA) serotypes have been described: serotypes 1 and 2 correspond to B. burgdorferi sensu stricto and Borrelia afzelii, respectively, and serotypes 3 to 7 correspond to Borrelia garinii. In Europe, serotype 4 has never been isolated from Ixodes ricinus ticks until recently, although this serotype has been frequently isolated from cerebrospinal fluid from patients. In Europe, B. afzelii and B. burgdorferi sensu stricto were found associated with rodents and B. garinii was found associated with birds. In this study, the reservoir role of Apodemus mice for B. garinii OspA serotype 4 was demonstrated by xenodiagnosis. Apodemus mice are the first identified reservoir hosts for B. garinii OspA serotype 4.
- PublicationMétadonnées seulementCharacterization of Borrelia lusitaniae isolates collected in Tunisia and Morocco(2005)
;Younsi, Hend ;Sarih, M'Hammed ;Jouda, Fatima ;Godfroid, Edmond ; ;Bouattour, Ali ;Baranton, GuyPostic, DanièleBorrelia lusitaniae is a species within the complex Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and is infrequently isolated in Europe. In contrast, this species is by far the most predominant in North Africa and in Portugal. In this study, we analyzed the genetic diversity, at several loci, of a large population of isolates from free-living Ixodes ricinus ticks collected in Tunisia and Morocco. We found a moderate diversity of the whole genome by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis as well as in the ospA gene sequences, compared to a high level of strain homogeneity in the small noncoding ribosomal spacer. In contrast, a high diversity of this locus has been previously reported for Portuguese isolates. We hypothesize that B. lusitaniae strains isolated in North Africa constitute a clone of Portuguese origin.
- PublicationMétadonnées seulementAn avian reservoir (Turdus merula) of the Lyme borreliosis spirochetes(1998)
;Humair, Pierre-François ;Postic, Danièle ;Wallich, ReinhardThe reservoir competence of passerine birds for the Lyme borreliosis spirochetes was studied in an enzootic focus in Switzerland. Skin aspirates and skin biopsies were used to isolate Borrelia spirochetes from Turdus species. B. burgdorferi sensu late was isolated and/or PCR-detected in BSK medium containing skin biopsy or skin aspirate from 5 blackbirds (T. merula) and one song thrush (T. philomelos). Seven isolates were obtained from 3 different blackbirds. Either B. garinii or Borrelia from the genomic group VS116 was found in bird skin samples. Mixed infection occurred in 2 cases. Tick xenodiagnosis was used to determine whether blackbirds transmitted Borrelia to ticks. Five xenodiagnoses were performed on 3 different blackbirds. Borrelia DNA was detected in BSK medium inoculated with xenodiagnostic ticks from all the passerines tested. Isolates cultured from xenodiagnostic ticks were obtained from 2 blackbirds. Isolates belonged to group VS116 (n = 10) and to B. garinii (n = 1). Our study has shown that Turdus sp. are infected by B. garinii and by Borrelia from group VS116 and that blackbirds are implicated as reservoirs for these 2 genomic groups of Borrelia, as they transmit living borreliae to ticks. An association seems to exist between birds and Borrelia VS116, and to a lesser extent, B. garinii, similar to the association existing between small rodents and B. afzelii. Our observations emphasize the fact that different enzootic cycles maintain Lyme borreliosis spirochetes in nature.
- PublicationMétadonnées seulementDiversity within Borrielia burgdorferi sensu lato genospecies in Switzerland by recA gene sequence(2004)
;Casati, Simona ;Bernasconi, Marco ;Piffaretti, Jean-ClaudeA total of 874 Ixodes ricinus ticks were collected in Switzerland to investigate the genetic diversity of the Borrelia population. We integrated to the RT-PCR method the DNA sequence analysis of a 162-bp fragment of the recA gene. Five genospecies were detected: Borrelia afzelii, Borrelia burgdorferi s.s., Borrelia garinii, Borrelia valaisiana, and Borrelia lusitaniae. A heterogeneous distribution was observed within the B. burgdorferi s.l. genospecies. The most prevalent and diverse genospecies found in Switzerland was Borrelia afzelii, which might suggest a rapid evolution of this genospecies. (C) 2004 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
- PublicationMétadonnées seulementLyme disease(2000)
;Falco, Richard CLyme borreliosis, the most common vector-borne disease in the northern hemisphere, is caused by bacteria belonging to the Borrelia burgdorferi complex. The disease is multisystemic, affecting main ly the skin, nervous system, heart and joints. in Europe, the vector of the disease is the tick Ixodes ricinus, whereas in the United States of America, two primary tick vectors exist, namely: I. scapularis in the north-eastern and mid-western regions and I. pacificus on the west coast. Several species of small and medium-sized mammals and ground-feeding birds serve as reservoirs for the bacteria in endemic areas. The prognosis for patients with Lyme borreliosis is excellent, particularly when diagnosed and treated early in the course of infection. Prevention of Lyme borreliosis can be achieved using two approaches, either prevention of infection by immunisation, or prevention of tick bites through avoidance, personal protection and tick control.
- PublicationMétadonnées seulementDetection and identification of Ehrlichia spp. in ticks collected in Tunisia and Morocco(2005)
;Sarih, M'Hammed ;M'Ghirbi, Youmna ;Bouattour, Ali ; ;Baranton, GuyPostic, DanièleA broad-range 16S rRNA gene PCR assay followed by partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene was used for the detection of members of the family Anaplasmataceae in ticks in North Africa. A total of 418 questing Ixodes ricinus ticks collected in Tunisia and Morocco, as well as 188 Rhipicephalus ticks from dogs and 52 Hyalomma ticks from bovines in Tunisia, were included in this study. Of 324 adult L ricinus ticks, 16.3% were positive for Ehrlichia spp., whereas only 3.4 and 2.8% of nymphs and larvae, respectively, were positive. A large heterogeneity was observed in the nucleotide sequences. Partial sequences identical to that of the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE) were detected in L ricinus and Hyalomma detritum, whereas partial sequences identical to that of Anaplasma platys were detected in Rhipicephalus sanguineus. However, variants of Anaplasma, provisionally designated Anaplasma-like, were predominant in the L ricinus tick population in Maghreb. Otherwise, two variants of the genus Ehrlichia were detected in L ricinus and H. detritum. Surprisingly, a variant of Wolbachia pipientis was evidenced from L ricinus in Morocco. These results emphasized the potential risk of tick bites for human and animal populations in North Africa.
- PublicationMétadonnées seulementApodemus sp. rodents, reservoir hosts for Borrelia afzelii in an endemic area in Switzerland(1997)
;Hu, Chang Min ;Humair, Pierre-François ;Wallich, ReinhardBorrelia burgdorferi is maintained in nature in transmission cycles alternatively involving ticks and reservoir hosts. Small rodents like Apodemus mice and Clethrionomys voles are the primary reservoir of Lyme disease in Europe. In this study, we analyzed by SDS-PAGE and Western blot 20 borrelial isolates from xenodiagnostic ticks fed on four Apodemus sp. mice captured in the Staatswald forest (Switzerland). All isolates but one showed a homogeneous protein pattern expressing an outer surface protein, (Osp) A of 32 kDa and an OspB of 35 kDa and reacted with monoclonal antibody (mAb) I 17.3 specific for B. afzelii. One isolate expressed an OspA of 32.5 kDa and an OspB of 35 kDa and did not react with species-specific mAbs I 17.3, D6 and H3TS, but was shown to belong to B., afzelii by Southern blot analysis. The possibility exists that non-cultivatable borreliae are present in xenodiagnostic ticks. However, our results clearly show that Apodemus sp. are reservoir hosts for B. afzelii, since this genospecies is transmitted from Apodemus sp. to feeding larval ticks.
- PublicationMétadonnées seulementLyme borreliosis in Europe and North America(2004)
;Piesman, JosephSince the discovery of the Lyme disease spirochete in North America in 1982 and in Europe in 1983, a plethora of studies on this unique group of spirochetes that comprise Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato has been accumulated. In an attempt to compare and contrast Lyme borreliosis in Europe and North America we have reviewed the biology of the aetiologic agents, as well as the clinical aspects, diagnosis and treatment of this disease on both continents. Moreover, we have detailed the ecology of the Ixodes ticks that transmit this infection and the reservoir hosts that maintain the spirochete cycle in nature. Finally, we have examined the transmission dynamics of the spirochete on both continents, as well as the available prevention strategies. Although it has been over two decades since the discovery of the Lyme disease spirochete, Lyme borreliosis is an expanding public health problem that has defied our attempts to control it. Bv comparing the accumulated experience of investigators in North America and Europe, where the disease is most frequently reported, we hope to advance the cause of developing novel approaches to combat Lyme borreliosis.
- PublicationMétadonnées seulementIsolation of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato from the Skin of the European Badger (Meles meles) in Switzerland(2009)
;Sell, KatyNo data are available on the role of badgers in the ecology of Lyme borreliosis spirochetes in Europe. In a recent study describing validation of a molecular method allowing host DNA identification and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato detection in Ixodes ricinus, the simultaneous presence of B. afzelii DNA and of European badger (Meles meles) DNA was detected in I. ricinus ticks in Switzerland. This suggested that badgers might be reservoir hosts for B. afzelii. Here, we present results obtained in a study on badgers conducted in 1996-1997. Thirty-one tissue samples (ear biopsy: n = 25, aspiration fluid: n = 6) from 8 badgers were placed in BSK medium to isolate B. burgdorferi sensu lato and were then examined by polymerase chain reaction/ restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR/RFLP). Globally, six Borrelia isolates (6/31, 19.4%) were obtained from 3/8 (37.5%) badgers. These isolates were identified as B. afzelii (n = 3) and B. valaisiana (n = 3).