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- PublicationMétadonnées seulementNatural history of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato(1998)
- PublicationAccès libreEcology of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Europe(2002)
- PublicationAccès libreBorrelia burgdorferi in a focus of Lyme borreliosis: epizootiologic contribution of small mammals
;Humair, Pierre-François ;Turrian, N ;The contribution of woodmice (Apodemus sylvaticus), yellow-necked mice (Apodemus flavicollis) and bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus) was compared in a focus of Lyme borreliosis in Switzerland during a 7 months' study. All three species of mice and one species of shrews (Sorex araneus) were shown parasitized by infected Ixodes ricinus immatures. About 14% of larvae and 50% of nymphs collected on small mammals were infected with B. burgdorferi. Spirochetes were isolated from blood of 3 woodmice and one yellow-necked mouse. The infectious status of rodents was estimated by tick xenodiagnosis. Prevalence of infected rodents ranged from 20% to 44%. Mice presented a higher potential infectivity than voles. The prevalence of infected rodents showed a seasonal variation.
- PublicationAccès libreNatural history of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato
;Humair, Pierre-FrançoisLyme borreliosis is a zoonosis: its causative agent, B: burgdorferi, circulates between ticks and a large range of vertebrates. Identification of the hosts which are responsible for the infection of the vectors is extremely important to determine the potential risk of infection in an habitat. Various small mammals and bird species are considered reservoirs for the Lyme disease spirochetes. Grey and red squirrels, hedgehogs as well as hares and rabbits can develop an infection and transmit B. burgdorferi sensu lato to feeding ticks. In Eurasian endemic areas, many different Borrelia species circulate between ticks and vertebrate hosts. Studies have shown that European and Asian genospecies are associated with specific groups of vertebrate hosts, such as B. valaisiana and B. garinii with birds, B. afzelii with small mammals and B. burgdorferi ss and B. afzelii with red squirrels. However, such associations are not always observed as in Japan where B. garinii, B. afzelii and unidentified Borrelia species are found in small mammals. Some enzootic cycles involving tick species which do not feed at all on humans or which rarely feed on humans have been described in Europe and USA. It is likely that many existing enzootic foci have yet to be discovered. The circulation of B. burgdorferi in silent foci does not have important implications for human health, but it demonstrates the complexity of the ecology of this microorganism and the variety of ecological niches this spirochete can occupy.
- PublicationMétadonnées seulementEcology of Borrelia burgdorfesi sensu lato in Europe(: CABI International, 2002)
; ;Humair, Pierre-François ;Gray, Jeremy ;Kahl, Olaf ;Lane, Robert SStanek, Gerold
- PublicationMétadonnées seulementEcology of Lyme borreliosis(1999)
- PublicationMétadonnées seulementThe wild hidden face of Lyme borreliosis in Europe(2000)
- PublicationAccès libreIxodes ricinus immatures on birds in a focus of Lyme borreliosis(1993)
;Humair, Pierre-François ;Turrian N. ;The infestation of birds by immature Ixodes ricinus was studied during 6 months in a Swiss woodland, where Lyme borreliosis is endemic. Thirteen passerine species were found to be parasitized by /. ricinus subadults and specially Turdus merula, T, philomelos and Erithacus rubecula. Overall, 300 larvae and 162 nymphs were collected on 95 avian hosts. Prevalence of infestation of nymphs on birds was higher in spring; larvae peaked in summer. The infection of birds by Borrelia burgdorferi was also studied using blood cultivation and examinations of ticks. Motionless spirochetes were isolated from two E. rubecula. Infected ticks were removed from five species of passerines, and mainly three species of Turdidae (T. merula, T. phllomelos and E. rubecula}. Infection rate of larvae and nymphs by spirochetes averaged 16.3% and 21.7%, respectively. These percentages, compared to the infection rate of questing ticks collected through dragging, suggest that some Turdidae may play a role as amplifying hosts for spirochetes in the focus.
- PublicationAccès libreRelationship between Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato species, red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris) and Ixodes ricinus in enzootic areas in Switzerland(1998)
;Humair, Pierre-FrançoisThe infection and reservoir status of red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris) for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato were studied in Switzerland. B. burgdorferi sensu lato was isolated from 15 skin samples from 4/6 dead red squirrels, victims of road traffic. Isolates were identified using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP): B. burgdorferi sensu stricto was present in 14 culture tubes containing skin samples and B. afzelii in two other tubes. A mixed infection was revealed in one case. A total of 227 ticks attached to squirrels were cultivated in BSKII medium and 90 isolates were obtained. Genotypic identification by RFLP showed that B. afzelii (59%) and B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (46%) dominated in ticks feeding on red squirrels. Data collected from one particular animal, highly infested with Ixodes ricinus and harbouring numerous Borrelia-infected Ixodes ricinus ticks, showed that transmission of B. burgdorferi sensu lato occurred from S. vulgaris to feeding ticks. More precisely, B. burgdorferi sensu stricto and B. afzelii were mainly transmitted from S. vulgaris to ticks. The present data emphasized the results obtained previously from small rodents and birds in Japan and in Switzerland, showing the occurrence of specific associations between host species and Borrelia genospecies.
- PublicationAccès librePrevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato in Ticks Collected from Migratory Birds in Switzerland(2006)
;Poupon, Marie-Angèle ; ;Humair, Pierre-François ; ; ;Schaad, Michael ;Jenni, LukasThe prevalence of ticks infected by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato on birds during their migrations was studied in Switzerland. A total of 1,270 birds captured at two sites were examined for tick infestation. Ixodes ricinus was the dominant tick species. Prevalences of tick infestation were 6% and 18.2% for birds migrating northward and southward, respectively. Borrelia valaisiana was the species detected most frequently in ticks, followed by Borrelia garinii and Borrelia lusitaniae. Among birds infested by infected ticks, 23% (6/26) were infested by B. lusitaniae-infected larvae. Migratory birds appear to be reservoir hosts for B. lusitaniae.