Voici les éléments 1 - 10 sur 27
- PublicationMétadonnées seulementTemporal aspects of processes in ad-hoc groups: A conceptual scheme and some research examples(Londres: Routledge, 2008)
; ;McGrath, Joseph ;Semmer, Norbert ;Arametti, Maurizio ;Bogenstätter, Yvonne ;Marsch, Stephan ;Roe, Robert ;Waller, MaryClegg, Stewart
- PublicationMétadonnées seulementImportance of leadership in cardiac arrest situations: from simulation to real life and back(2013-4-18)
;Hunziker, Sabina ; ;Semmer, NorbertMarsch, StephanThe 2010 American Heart Association guidelines now re- commend leadership training in Advanced Cardiac Life Support courses. In this review we provide a comprehens- ive summary of data derived from clinical studies that in- vestigated the importance of leadership in cardiopulmon- ary resuscitation (CPR). Only a few, mostly observational, studies have been conducted under real-life conditions be- cause of the high heterogeneity of the situations, diffi- culties in capturing the initial phase of CPR, and ethical issues. Well-controlled studies in the human simulator can fill existing gaps and provide important insights. High-fi- delity video-assisted simulator studies from different re- search groups have shown that a prolonged process of teambuilding is associated with significant shortcomings in CPR, whereas effective leadership improves team per- formance. In addition, randomised controlled studies have provided evidence that medical students receiving leader- ship training subsequently showed improved CPR perform- ance, which was sustained after a follow up of 4 months. In addition, leadership is influenced by gender and other factors such as emotional stress. Future studies are needed to investigate cultural differences and how findings from the simulator can be transferred to real-life situations.
- PublicationMétadonnées seulementFirst years in job: A three-wave analysis of work experiences(2007)
;Elfering, Achim ;Semmer, Norbert ; ;Kälin, WolfgangBucher, AdrianA sample of 423 Swiss job entrants reported major change in general, as well as positive and negative work experiences one, two, and four years after finishing vocational training. Qualitative data analysis showed change in responsibility, increase in decision latitude, acquisition of new status (professional work status, full team member status), increased salary, and change in work rhythm to be characteristic for the transition from apprenticeship into "real work". In terms of costs and benefits participants reported transition-specific combinations of work experiences, with responsibility and social recognition as positive experiences combined with high demands as negative experiences. Reports of increasing demands and task intensity were frequent throughout the first four years of job experience. Cooperation and social exchange always were of major concern, both as positive and negative experiences. The number of positive and negative experiences reported predicted job satisfaction over and above previous job satisfaction, background variables, stressors, and resources. Results point to a rather smooth transition, in which negative experiences are embedded in, and outweighed by, positive ones. (c) 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
- PublicationMétadonnées seulementLeading to recovery: Group performance and coordinative activities in medical emergency driven groups(2006)
; ;Semmer, Norbert ;Gautschi, Dieter ;Hunziker, Patrick ;Spychiger, MartinMarsch, StephanThe influence of human factors on team performance was investigated in "medical emergency driven groups" composed of medical professionals treating a sudden cardiac arrest in a high fidelity simulator setting. The group composition is unique, but realistic, in that it is not constant. Three phases are distinguished: In Phase 1, 3 nurses are present; in Phase 2, a resident joins; and in Phase 3 a senior doctor joins. It was hypothesized that directive leadership behavior would enhance group performance. This was supported with regard to the directive leadership behavior of the nurse first on bedside in Phase 1, and for directive leadership of the resident in Phase 2-but only with regard to behavior occurring in the first 30 see after entering the group, which reflects the need for quick action in this time-sensitive task. For Phase 3, we expected not only directive leadership but also indirect guidance by "structuring inquiry" of the senior doctor to enhance performance. This was confirmed for structuring inquiry. Results indicate that to enhance group performance training should go beyond "technical" training that concentrates on medical necessities. Rather, it should include aspects of group coordination, emphasizing that coordinating behavior should be adapted (a) to the situation and (b) to professional role requirements.
- PublicationMétadonnées seulementIllegitimate Tasks and Counterproductive Work Behavior(2010)
;Semmer, Norbert ; ;Meier, Laurenz ;Facchin, StephanieIllegitimate tasks represent a new stressor concept that is specifically tied to feeling offended. Tasks are legitimate to the extent that they conform to norms about what can reasonably be expected from a given person, and they are illegitimate to the extent that they violate such norms. Illegitimate tasks therefore are conceived as offending one's professional identity, and thus, the self. Previous research has shown illegitimate tasks to be related to indicators of well-being and strain, controlling for other stressors. We now present two Studies showing that illegitimate tasks relate to counterproductive work behavior, controlling for effort-reward imbalance in Study 1, for personality (conscientiousness and agreeableness) and organisational justice in Study 2. Thus, illegitimate tasks are associated with behavior that may be labeled "active, but in the wrong direction".
- PublicationMétadonnées seulementPerformance of first responders in simulated cardiac arrests(2005)
;Marsch, Stephan ; ;Semmer, Norbert ;Spychiger, Martin ;Breuer, MarcHunziker, PatrickObjective. Survival of in-hospital cardiac arrests depends more on first responders than on cardiac arrest teams. The objective of this study was to determine the adherence to algorithms of cardiopulmonary resuscitation of first responders in simulated cardiac arrests in intensive care. A second objective was to assess the effect of the early vs. late availability of a physician on the performance of nurse-based teams acting as first responders. Design: Prospective study. Setting. Patient simulator in a tertiary level intensive care unit. Participants: A total of 20 teams consisting of three registered nurses and one resident each. Interventions: A simulated witnessed cardiac arrest due to ventricular fibrillation occurred in the presence of one nurse while the remaining two nurses could be called to help. Depending on the time of the residents' arrival, teams were classified as "early" (median arrival 50 secs after the onset of the arrest) or "late" (median arrival 150 secs after the onset of the arrest). Measurements and Main Results: In all teams, the recognition of the arrest and the calling for help occurred, in a timely fashion. However, a median of 85 secs (interquartile range , 130 secs) elapsed until the start of cardiac massage and 100 secs (IQ, 45 secs) to the first defibrillation. Once commenced, cardiac massage and mask ventilation were carried out during 61% (IQ, 33%) and 77% (IQ, 23%) of the possible time only. Delays and interruptions were generally not recalled by the participants. Compared with teams with late arriving residents, teams with early arriving residents administered more countershocks: 4.5 (IQ, 2) vs. 3.5 (IQ, 1.5; p =.026). Conclusions. First responders in intensive care often failed to build a team structure that ensured timely, effective, monitored, and ongoing team activity. The early availability of a physician increased the number of countershocks administered. Self-reporting is unsuitable to reliably assess the quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation.
- PublicationMétadonnées seulementHow Accurate Is Information Transmitted to Medical Professionals Joining a Medical Emergency? A Simulator Study(2009)
;Bogenstätter, Yvonne ; ;Semmer, Norbert ;Spychiger, Martin ;Breuer, MarcMarsch, StephanObjective: This study used a high-fidelity simulation to examine factors influencing the accuracy of 201 pieces of information transmitted to nurses and physicians joining a medical emergency situation. Background: Inaccurate or incomplete information transmission has been identified as a major problem in medicine. However, only a few studies have assessed possible causes of transmission errors. Method: Each of 20 groups was composed of two or three nurses (first responders), one resident joining the group later, and one senior doctor joining last. Groups treated a patient suffering a cardiac arrest. Results: Multilevel binomial analyses showed that 18% of the information given to newcomers was inaccurate. Quantitative information requiring repeated updating was particularly error prone. Information generated earlier (i.e., older information) was more likely to be transmitted inaccurately. Explicitly encoding information to be transmitted after the physicians arrived at the scene enhanced accuracy, supporting transfer-appropriate processing theory. Conclusion: Information transmitted to nurses and physicians who join an ongoing emergency is only partly reliable. Therefore, medical professionals should not take accuracy for granted and should be aware of the nature of transmission errors. Application: Medical professionals should be trained in adequate encoding of information and in standardized communication procedures with regard to error-prone information. In addition, technical devices should be implemented that reduce reliance on memory regarding information with error-prone characteristics.
- PublicationMétadonnées seulementLeadership instructions enhance leadership and medical performance in cardiopulmonary resuscitation(2008)
;Hunziker, Patrick ;Buehlmann, Cyrill ; ;Semmer, Norbert ;Staff, SMarsch, Stephan
- PublicationMétadonnées seulementGetting groups to develop good strategies: Effects of reflexivity interventions on team process, team performance, and shared mental models(2007)
;Gurtner, Andrea ; ;Semmer, NorbertNägele, ChristofThis study examines the effect of guided reflection on team processes and performance, based on West's (1996, 2000) concept of reflexivity. Communicating via e-mail, 49 hierarchically structured teams (one commander and two specialists) performed seven 15 min shifts of a simulated team-based military air-surveillance task (TAST) in two meetings, a week apart. At the beginning of the second meeting, teams were assigned either to a reflexivity (individual or group) or to a control condition. Results show that reflexivity enhanced performance, the link between reflexivity and team performance being mediated by communication and implementation of strategies as well as by similarity of mental models. Contrary to expectations, individual reflexivity was superior to group reflexivity. Additional analyses suggested that group reflexivity decreased the commanders' active behavior and increased discussion of strategies that were too general to be helpful. Results point to the usefulness of reflexivity as a generic intervention but underscore the importance of focusing on strategies that are task-specific. (c) 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
- PublicationMétadonnées seulementYoung adults entering the workforce in Switzerland(Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005)
;Semmer, Norbert ; ;Elfering, Achim ;Kälin, Wolfgang ;Grebner, Simone ;Kriesi, Hanspeter ;Farago, Peter ;Kohli, Martin
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